Theories of Infant Development Term Paper by scribbler

Theories of Infant Development
A review of the child development theories of Lev Vygotsky, Albert Bandura and Uri Bronfenbrenner.
# 152978 | 909 words | 3 sources | APA | 2013 | US
Published on May 01, 2013 in Education (Development Studies) , Psychology (Theory)

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The paper reviews Lev Vygotsky's social development theory that describes the mental functions of infants and how they develop with time, and explains Vygotsky's beliefs of the elementary mental functions, higher mental functions, tools of intellectual adaptation and the Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD). The paper also relates Vygotsky's approach to language. Next, the paper looks at the theories of Albert Bandura on "self-efficacy" and explains Bandura's belief that the best and most effective way to create a strong sense of efficacy is through mastery experiences. Finally, the paper outlines Uri Bronfenbrenner's ecological systems theory where he establishes various "layers" of a child's environment and each layer has a contributing affect on the growth and development of the child.

From the Paper:

"Lev Vygotsky's social development theory has played an important role in understanding the psychology of child development. Vygotsky explained that healthy infants are born with the essential tools for intellectual development. He calls these tools (abilities) Elementary Mental Functions (simplypsychology). The specific functions are attention, sensation, perception and memory - and in time they will become fully developed within the socio-cultural environment, according to Vygotsky. They will evolve into "Higher Mental Functions" (simplypsychology).
"Of course, memory isn't something that a toddler or infant will have developed at this stage in his life. Biologically, young children are limited in the respect of memory. But on the other hand how well the child will indeed develop his memory strategies depends on the culture that the child is reared in. In the English speaking culture - and particularly in the United States and the UK - the culture encourages the child to take notes to enhance memory. In other cultures and societies (where literacy is not yet fully developed) the child may learn to carry a certain number of pebbles or tie knots on a string in order to remember numbers and other memory-related tasks."

Sample of Sources Used:

  • Bandura, Albert. (1994). Self-efficacy. In V.S. Ramachaudran (Ed.), Encyclopedia of HumanBehavior (Vol. 4, pp. 71-81). New York: Academic Press.
  • Paquette, Dede, and Ryan, John. (2001). Bronfenbrenner's Ecological Systems Theory. National-Louis University. Retrieved Nov. 10, 2010, from
  • Simply Psychology. (2008). Vygotsky's Theory of Social Development. Retrieved Nov. 10,2010, from

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