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The paper examines the challenges that African Americans faced during the Jim Crow period of social segregation. The paper discusses the New Deal, and how African-Americans blacks were excluded from jobs and electricity created by FDR's Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) program. The paper also addresses the lynching of African Americans by mobs of white Southerners. The paper then explores what African Americans did to overcome white supremacy, and discusses the activism of Mary McLeod Bethune, the registering of blacks to vote, the force of the Black church and the bold and courageous moves of individuals.
From the Paper:"The leadership of people like Mary McLeod Bethune was important in the struggle to be free from the rule of Jim Crow in the South. She was called the "female Booker T. Washington" and "Mother Bethune" (McCluskey, 1999, p. 236) and she gained the widespread affection of the black community (and a significant portion of the white establishment) for her writings championing black progress in newspapers. Bethune was a charismatic speaker and she carved out a position of "moral authority" based on the use of "honey" rather than "vinegar" to affect change, McCluskey writes on page 237. She used both the black press (Chicago Defender and Pittsburgh Courier) and the white press to build a consensus for cooperation and fellowship on racial issues. And she used her leadership position in the National Council of Negro Women (NCNW) to promote higher education for African Americans, equality for all women, and she convinced First Lady Eleanor Roosevelt to attend black conferences and to host White House conferences for the advance of black youth and black business interests (McCluskey, p. 239)."
Sample of Sources Used:
- Billingsley, Andrew. (1992). Climbing Jacob's Ladder: The Enduring Legacy of African-American Families. New York: Simon & Schuster.
- Book, Robert. (2004). Race, Water, and Foreign Policy: The Tennessee ValleyAuthority's Global Agenda Meets "Jim Crow." Diplomatic History, 28(1), 55-81.
- McCluskey, Audrey T. (1999). Representing the Race: Mary McLeod Bethune and thePress in the Jim Crow Era. The Western Journal of Black Studies, 23(4), 236-250.
- The New York Times. (Various Dates, 1933 - 1963). Coverage of Segregation and Civil Rights Issues in the South. ProQuest Historical Newspapers: The New York Times (1851-2003).
- Wells-Barnett, Ida B. (1969). On Lynchings: Southern Horrors / A Red Record / Mob Rule in New Orleans. New York: Arno Press and The New York Times.
Cite this Term Paper:
The Age of Segregation (2010, October 31) Retrieved January 29, 2022, from https://www.academon.com/term-paper/the-age-of-segregation-145265/
"The Age of Segregation" 31 October 2010. Web. 29 January. 2022. <https://www.academon.com/term-paper/the-age-of-segregation-145265/>