Stepping Up One Step and Reaching Up Term Paper by Nicky

Stepping Up One Step and Reaching Up
A review of the neurotransmitters and muscles involved in the process of stepping up one step and reaching up to grasp an object.
# 149060 | 900 words | 3 sources | APA | 2011 | US
Published on Nov 22, 2011 in Biology (General)

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The paper describes the general process of movement and then details the specific muscles and specific actions that are used when stepping up one step. The paper looks at what is involved in reaching up with the arm to grasp a desired object and examines exactly what process takes place in the muscle tissue that actually enables movement. The paper describes which bones and muscles in the wrist and hand would become involved at this point.

From the Paper:

"It is worthwhile to examine exactly what process takes place in the muscle tissue once activated that actually enables movement. Muscles work by contracting; at the cellular level, the muscle fibers actually cling together and shorten when activated, and are able to relax but not push in the opposite direction (Freudenrich 2009). This is why muscles often operate in oppositional pairs, so that one muscle can perform the opposite action of its partner. In order to accomplish this feat of contraction, the spreading chemical messenger causes the calcium stores located in the muscle tissue to open (Freudenrich 2009). The calcium ions flow into the cytoplasm of the muscle cells where it binds to troponin-tropomyosin molecules located in grooves on the actin filaments. These molecules normally prevent myosin from bonding with the actin, keeping the muscle from contracting. The calcium ions change the shape of the troponin, pushing the tropomyosin out of the groves and allowing the myosin fibers to connect with the actin (Freudenrich 2009). The connection of the fibers draws the muscle tissue closer together, contracting the tissue which in turn pulls on the bones of the skeleton and creates movement."

Sample of Sources Used:

  • Cluett, J. (2009). "Information About Anatomy: Orthopedics." Accessed 17 May 2009.
  • Freudenrich, C. (2009). "How Muscles Work." Accessed 17 May 2009.
  • "The Secret Life of the Brain." Accessed 17 May 2009.

Cite this Term Paper:

APA Format

Stepping Up One Step and Reaching Up (2011, November 22) Retrieved December 02, 2023, from

MLA Format

"Stepping Up One Step and Reaching Up" 22 November 2011. Web. 02 December. 2023. <>