Smoking and Periodontal Health Term Paper by Nicky

Smoking and Periodontal Health
A brief discussion of smoking as an important risk factor for periodontal damage.
# 145000 | 713 words | 6 sources | MLA | 2010 | US
Published on Oct 22, 2010 in Medical and Health (Dentistry)

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The paper overviews the research on smoking as a predisposing factor for periodontal diseases. The paper describes the ill effects of smoking both on periodontal disease proliferation and impaired healing, and argues that it is incumbent upon dentists to make their patients aware of the serious negative health impact of smoking.

Smoking and Periodontis
Literature Review

From the Paper:

"Periodontis is the most common disease caused by bacterial infection affecting gum tissue and alveolar bone. [Enrique Bimstein, 229] It is the second largest cause for tooth loss among adults. The toxins in tobacco drastically reduce peripheral blood flow, cause inflammatory response and affect the periodontium. Though periodontal infections frequently recover naturally smoking has the effect of hampering this natural recovery process as it compromises the immune system. Several epidemiological studies have confirmed that smoking increases the rate of progression of periodontal diseases. . [Murray Thomson] It is also observed that smokers in general have decreased secretion of saliva and consequently greater dental calculus. Smoking suppresses immune response against the formation of plagues. Due to vasoconstriction of the gingival tissues, smokers do not recover sufficiently from gingival tissue damage. Studies have also shown an increased proliferation of anaerobic microorganisms in the gingival tissues of smokers clearly indicating reduced peripheral blood flow. [PEIRO]"

Sample of Sources Used:

  • R Joshi, 'Smoking and Periodontal Diseases : Patient Awareness', Accessed Dec 2nd 2008, Available online at,
  • Elizabeth A Kraal, PhD, M.P.H, Arthur J Garvey PhD & Raul L Garcia D.M.D, 'Alveolar Bone Loss and Tooth loss in Male Cigar and Pipe Smokers' JADA Vol 130 Jan 1999
  • D.F.Kinane, L.G.Chestnutt, 'Smoking and Periodontal Disease', Critical Review in Oral Biology & Medicine, 11(3) 356-365, 2000
  • Enrique Bimstein, Howard L Needleman, 'Periodontal and Gingival Health Diseases: Children, Adolescents, and Young Adults', Taylor & Francis, 2001
  • PEIRO, 'Tobacco Use Increases the Risk of Gum Disease', Accessed Dec 1st 2008, Available online at

Cite this Term Paper:

APA Format

Smoking and Periodontal Health (2010, October 22) Retrieved June 22, 2021, from

MLA Format

"Smoking and Periodontal Health" 22 October 2010. Web. 22 June. 2021. <>