SMC Calcification and TG2 Term Paper by Jay Writtings LLC

SMC Calcification and TG2
A study showing how the catalytic activation of extracellular transglutaminase 2 (TG2) is critical for the induction of smooth muscle cell calcification.
# 119824 | 892 words | 14 sources | APA | 2010 | US
Published on May 26, 2010 in Biology (Molecular and Cell) , Medical and Health (Medical Studies)

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The paper explains how calcification of a tissue can occur under both physiological and pathological conditions. The paper concentrates on vascular calcification and looks at mediators of vascular calcification, with a focus on transglutaminase 2 (TG2). The paper tests the hypothesis that TG2 is needed to promote the osteoblastic/chondrocytic differentiation of smooth muscle cells (SMC) which leads to calcification. The paper reveals the results that identify the crosslinking activity of TG2 as a mediator in the promotion of SMC calcification, and that show how TG2 promotes the maintenance of the SMC contractile phenotype.

From the Paper:

"Calcification of a tissue can occur under both physiological and pathological conditions. In bone and growth plate cartilage, the physiologic calcification is initiated by the release of matrix vesicles or apoptotic bodies (1). These contain enzymes and membrane components which shelter and promote the nidus of crystal formation. Eventually the calcium phosphate (hydroxyapatite) crystals rupture the vesicle and mineral is deposited in the surrounding matrix. The formation of the calcification that occurs is dictated by the local environment and the surrounding tissue and cells (1)."

Sample of Sources Used:

  • Anderson, H. C. (2003) Curr Rheumatol Rep. 5, 222-6.
  • Johnson, R. C., Leopold, J. A., Loscalzo, J. (2006) Circ Res. 99, 1044-1059.
  • Dellegrottaglie, S., Sanz, J., Rajagopalan, S. (2006) Curr Mol Med. 6, 515-24.
  • Vattikuti, R., Towler, D. A. (2004) Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 286, E686-96.
  • Bostrom, K., Watson, K. E., Stanford, W. P., Demer, L. L. (1995) Am J Cardiol. 75, 88B-91B.

Cite this Term Paper:

APA Format

SMC Calcification and TG2 (2010, May 26) Retrieved April 10, 2020, from

MLA Format

"SMC Calcification and TG2" 26 May 2010. Web. 10 April. 2020. <>