Motor Learning and Control Term Paper by scribbler

Motor Learning and Control
A review of the literature on the development of cognitive, affective and psycho-motor skills.
# 153079 | 2,923 words | 10 sources | APA | 2013 | US
Published on May 02, 2013 in Sport (General) , Psychology (General)

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The paper explores Fitts and Posner's three-stage model which describes a trio of stages through which a person goes through in order to achieve automaticity in a motor skill. Next, the paper looks at both Adam's and Gentile's two stage model to understand how automaticity begins and how it results in the performance of a motor skill being performed without obvious conscious thought. The paper then reviews the reflexive movement phase, the rudimentary movement phase, the fundamental movement phase and the specialized movement phase, and also notes how a child's physique or body type affects the quality of the child's motor performance. Finally, the paper addresses the impact of socialization and peer pressure on the quality of a child's sport performance.


From the Paper:

"Fitts and Posner's Three-Stage Model describes a trio of stages through which a person goes through in order to achieve automaticity in a motor skill (1967). (Hergenhahn 523-532) The first stage is known as the cognitive stage. They theorized that the first stage is 'marked by a large number of errors in performance, and the nature of the errors being committed tends to be gross'. This stage is also marked by the fact that even though the learner understands that they are making mistakes, they are unable to understand what exactly they are doing incorrectly in order to correct it.
"The second stage described by Fitts and Posner is called the associative stage. They theorized that this stage occurs when 'many of the basic fundamentals or mechanics of the skill have to some extent been learned...the errors are fewer and less gross in nature '(Leichsenring 1223-1233). The learner can now during this stage recognize some of their own errors, however the errors still occur. The third stage is called the autonomous stage. This stage is the most interesting for us in the discussion of automaticity. Here the skill is able to be performed with little or no cognitive thought, making it automatic. " It 'allows performers to produce a response without having to concentrate on the entire movement". Adam's model is the Two Stage model proposed in 1971. This model proposed that there are two stages of learning. The first stage is the verbal-motor stage (Reisner 377-400). This stage is, in essence, a combination of Fitts and Posner's cognitive and associative stages (Reisner 377-400)."

Sample of Sources Used:

  • Lebedev, M.A., Carmena, J.M., O'Doherty, J.E., Zacksenhouse, M., Henriquez, C.S., Principe, J.C., Nicolelis, M.A.L. (2005) Cortical ensemble adaptation to represent actuators controlled by a brain machine interface. Journal of Neuroscience, 25: 4681-4693.
  • Mattar A. A. G. and Ostry D. J. (2007). Neural averaging in motor learning. Journal of Neurophysiology. 97: 220-228.
  • Shadmehr, R. and Wise, S.P. (2005) The Computational Neurobiology of Reaching and Pointing: A Foundation for Motor Learning, MIT Press xviii 1-575.
  • Aidman, Eugene, Galanis, George, Manton, Jeremy, Vozzo, Armando and Bonner, Michael(2002)'Evaluating human systems in military training', Australian Journal of Psychology,54:3,168-173
  • Richard Frankel, Timothy Quill, Susan McDaniel (2003). The Biopsychosocial Approach: Past, Present, Future. Boydell & Brewer. ISBN 1580461026, 9781580461023.

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APA Format

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