Masculinity: Biological or Cultural? Term Paper by Nicky

Explores the necessity to understand the concept of masculinity, especially as related to crime.
# 146437 | 3,475 words | 15 sources | APA | 2010 | US

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This paper explains that, although there are very few studies as to what it is to be masculine, the idea of manliness has been a focus of philosophers, anthropologists, psychologists and other social commentators throughout history. Interest in the study of masculinity and the men's movement, the author relates, developed with the beginning of the feminist movement of the 1970s. The paper reviews several modern studies of gender especially James Messerschmidt's theory of crime and masculinity.

From the Paper:

Based on Connell (1987) and Giddens (1976), Messerschmidt noted that such social structures are not external to the participants or just constraining. Instead, the structure is recognized only by social behavior, and social behavior necessitates structure. As individuals do gender, they copy and even may change the social structure. Gender relations connect one person to another in a commonality. They share structural space. As a result, these shared times of gendered knowledge evolve through interaction where particular gender ideals and activities play a part. "

Sample of Sources Used:

  • Carrigan, C., Connell, R.W., & Lee, J. (1985), Toward a new sociology of masculinity, Theory and Society, 14 (5), 551-604.
  • Cloward, Richard A. and Lloyd E. Ohlin. 1960. Delinquency and Opportunity: a theory of delinquent gangs. Glencoe, IL: Free Press.
  • Connell, RW. 1985. Masculinities. Cambridge, Polity Press.
  • Connell, R.W. and Messerschmidt, J. (2005) Hegemonic Masculinity, Rethinking the Concept Gender and Society. Gender & Society, 19(6), 829-859
  • Hagedorn, John M. 1998. "Gang violence in the post industrial era." in Youth Violence, M. Tonry and M. H. Moore (Eds). Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

Cite this Term Paper:

APA Format

Masculinity: Biological or Cultural? (2010, December 27) Retrieved August 24, 2019, from

MLA Format

"Masculinity: Biological or Cultural?" 27 December 2010. Web. 24 August. 2019. <>