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This paper explains and describes the four forms of learning, that include non-associative learning, associative learning, imprinting and observational learning. The paper discusses how the learning process is greatly affected by both positive conditioning, or reinforcement, and negative conditioning, or punishment, and shows how learning and memory are inextricably connected. The paper goes on to offer examples that demonstrate that understanding and using the four forms of learning can help a teacher to better manage his classroom and improve the performance of his students.
From the Paper:"Non-associative learning is also known as single event learning. Essentially, non-associative learning involves learning that some events are irrelevant. If a person moves from a rural area to a major city, for example, the first few nights of sleep may be interrupted by the unfamiliar sounds of the lively, vibrant city at night. But as this person grows increasingly accustomed to the sounds of the city at night, the person becomes more and more able to ignore those sounds because the person has learned that the sounds are not related to anything relevant to him or her. Non-associative learning is characterized by a decrease in psychological response and behavioral response after prolonged exposure to a particular stimulus (Grusec & Hastings, 2007).
"Associative learning uses consequences to adjust the form and/or occurrence of behavior. Associative learning appears in two different forms: operant conditioning and classical conditioning. Operant conditioning focuses on voluntary behavior, and classical conditioning focuses on involuntary behavior. The primary difference between the two types of associative learning is that behaviors that are conditioned by operant conditioning are maintained through consequences while those that are conditions by classical conditioning are not maintained through consequences."
Sample of Sources Used:
- Everett, G. (2010). Time-Out in Special Education Settings: The Parameters of Previous Implementation. North American Journal of Psychology, Vol. 12 Issue 1. Retrieved from http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/detail?vid=16&hid=7&sid=9e930045-a4d9-4364-ba20-2c3a26f3c578%40sessionmgr12&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3d#db=aph&AN=48667759
- Grusec, Joan E., and Hastings Paul D. (2007). Handbook of Socialization: Theory and Research. New York: Guilford Press.
- Huitt, W., and Hummel, J. (1997). An Introduction to Operant (Instrumental) Conditioning. Educational Psychology Interactive. Valdosta, GA: Valdosta State University. Retrieved 4/13/10 from http://www.edpsycinteractive.org/topics/behsys/operant.html
- Ingvarsson, Einar T., Hanley, Gregory P., and Welter, Katherine M. (2009). Treatment of Escape - Maintained Behavior with Positive Reinforcement: The Role of Reinforcement Contingency and Destiny. Education & Treatment of Children. Vol. 32 Issue 3.
- Thomson, Elizabeth A. (2004). Team Discovers Memory Formation Mechanism. MIT News. Retrieved from http://web.mit.edu/newsoffice/2004/memory-0211.html
Cite this Term Paper:
Learning and Memory in the Classroom (2013, January 10) Retrieved January 26, 2020, from https://www.academon.com/term-paper/learning-and-memory-in-the-classroom-152182/
"Learning and Memory in the Classroom" 10 January 2013. Web. 26 January. 2020. <https://www.academon.com/term-paper/learning-and-memory-in-the-classroom-152182/>