Human Development: Adolescence
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This paper deals with the way in which children develop into adolescents, and the physical, psychological and sociological changes that take place, explaining how they can last well into an individual's twenties. It also provides information about theories set out on this subject by Freud and Erikson.
From the Paper:''Body changes may cause many adolescents great anxiety. For example, a young woman who receives positive support from her family, culture and peers about her changing body will have a more positive sense about her sexuality and maturity than a girl who does not. However, this is not to say that parents can prevent all of the conflicts a child will endure. A boy whose physical development lags behind his peers may be teased and feel ashamed, even if his parents tell him that everyone develops at a different pace. Even the most supportive parents may find themselves facing teens who seem moody and defiant, partially because of hormonal changes, and also because of the identity conflicts the individual is going through.
''According to Sigmund Freud, who stressed the sexual component of all human motivations, after the latency period of childhood, "when the child develops a balance between the ego and id," upon adolescence children enter the "genital" phase of psychological development where "the child is bombarded with instinctual impulses...The ego is torn between the strong impulses of the id and the restrictions of the superego. This conflict makes adolescence a time of tremendous stress and turmoil," regardless of the individual's location in a specific culture or family (Developmental theories, 2007, ReCAPP). In contrast, Erik Erikson, who also called this period of development the 'genital' stage, took a more positive view than Freud. Erikson "thought that the turmoil resulted from an identity crisis rather than a struggle between the id and ego. He saw adolescence as a necessary and productive period -- as a time of life when one works to form one's own identity" (Developmental theories, 2007, ReCAPP). This is why adolescents try on and discard various identities, friends, and attitudes, and are often in conflict with parents and other authority figures. The critical developmental conflict during this period for Erikson was "Identity vs. role confusion" and it must be resolved, lest the individual become stuck in an adolescent phase all of his or her life and constantly seek a secure sense of identity about sexuality and their purpose in life (Developmental theories, 2007, ReCAPP).''
Sample of Sources Used:
- Berger, K.S. (2004). The Developing Person. New York: Worth Publishers.
- Developmental theories. (2007). ReCAPP. ETR. Retrieved February 22, 2009 at http://www.etr.org/recapp/theories/AdolescentDevelopment/developmentalTheories.htm
- Ratner, Carl. Child psychology: Vygotsky's conception of psychological development.Institute for Cultural Research & Education. Retrieved February 22, 2009 at http://www.humboldt1.com/~cr2/vygdev.htm
Cite this Term Paper:
Human Development: Adolescence (2011, March 03) Retrieved September 20, 2020, from https://www.academon.com/term-paper/human-development-adolescence-147228/
"Human Development: Adolescence" 03 March 2011. Web. 20 September. 2020. <https://www.academon.com/term-paper/human-development-adolescence-147228/>