Howard Gardner's Theory of Multiple Intelligences Term Paper by Nicky

Howard Gardner's Theory of Multiple Intelligences
A brief overview and discussion on Howard Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences.
# 151086 | 1,069 words | 7 sources | APA | 2012 | US
Published on May 21, 2012 in Education (Theory)

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The paper outlines Gardner's multiple intelligences theory and notes that while there are criticisms of this theory, each intelligence identified by Gardner is necessarily required for effective life functioning. The paper points out that Gardner in no way claimed that these were inclusive of all the existing intelligences possessed by humans.

Multiple Intelligences
Core Operations of the Intelligences
Characteristics of the Multiple Intelligences
Gardner's View
Negative and Positive Reactions to Gardner's Theory of Multiple Intelligences
Summary and Conclusion

From the Paper:

"While Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences has met with criticism within academic psychology many educators have strongly and positively responded to this theory for explaining the variations of the functions of these multiple intelligences in and among human beings. (Smith, 2008, paraphrased)
"Smith (2008) reports the work of Kornhaber (2001) a researcher stated to be involved with 'Project Zero' and who has identified several reasons for the positive response of teachers and policymakers to Gardner's 'multiple intelligences' and who stated as follows:
"... the theory validates educators' everyday experience: students think and learn in many different ways. It also provides educators with a conceptual framework for organizing and reflecting on curriculum assessment and pedagogical practices. In turn, this reflection has led many educators to develop new approaches that might better meet the needs of the range of learners in their classrooms." (Smith, 2008)
"Smith (2008) states that Kolb's model of experiential learning by adult and informal educators has "paralleled...the response to Howard Gardener" and there are questions that need to be addressed and the formulation can be criticized. Furthermore, Smith (2002) reports that translation into policy and practice of Gardner's theory "has been varied..." however, it is important to realize that each of the intelligences indentified by Howard Gardner are useful and critically necessary for the individual's effective functioning in life."

Sample of Sources Used:

  • Deppisch, Peter (2009) Howard Gardner, Multiple Intelligences and Education. Network News International News. 5 Oct 2009. Online available at:
  • Gardner, H. (1991) The Unschooled Mind: How children think and how schools should teach, New York: Basic Books.
  • Gardner, Howard (1983; 1993) Frames of Mind: The theory of multiple intelligences, New York: Basic Books.
  • Gardner, Howard (1999) Intelligence Reframed. Multiple intelligences for the 21st century, New York: Basic Books. 292 + x pages. Useful review of Gardner's theory and discussion of issues and additions.
  • Gardner, Howard (2003) Multiple Intelligences after Twenty Years. Paper presented at the American Educational Research Association, Chicago, Illinois, 21 April 2003. Online available at:

Cite this Term Paper:

APA Format

Howard Gardner's Theory of Multiple Intelligences (2012, May 21) Retrieved September 19, 2020, from

MLA Format

"Howard Gardner's Theory of Multiple Intelligences" 21 May 2012. Web. 19 September. 2020. <>