Galileo and Newton on Science
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This paper examines the shift from a religious explanation for science to the scientific and empirical explanation with Galileo and Newton. The paper discusses how the mode of thought Galileo, Descartes and Newton fostered would lead to the scientific method and the new paradigm of nature as explainable by science rather than faith.
From the Paper:"In an earlier era, the Aristotelian system had been adapted by part of the Catholic Church. The earlier paradigm of Aristotle and Thomas Aquinas is also known as Thomistic philosophy and is basically Aristotelian in methodology and point of view. At best, it is empirical and realist. The new scientific ideas of the 16th, 17th, and 18th centuries challenged the prevailing assumptions of the Aristotelian/Christian paradigm. Two competing paradigms are "incommensurable" when they lack a common base for comparison. A paradigm in this sense is a shared set of understandings. A paradigm can be used to explain the value, meaning, and nature of normal science, meaning research that is firmly based upon one or more past scientific achievements, or the achievements that some particular scientific community accepts for a time and that supplies the foundation for that community.
"Thomas Aquinas preferred an order of study that presupposed the liberal arts and mathematics, and he began with Aristotelian logic, principally On Interpretation and the Posterior Analytics; moved through natural philosophy involving all the natural sciences, including psychology; treated moral philosophy, including political science; and concluded with metaphysics, or first philosophy, which today would include epistemology and natural theology."
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Galileo and Newton on Science (2003, October 09) Retrieved April 18, 2021, from https://www.academon.com/term-paper/galileo-and-newton-on-science-39435/
"Galileo and Newton on Science" 09 October 2003. Web. 18 April. 2021. <https://www.academon.com/term-paper/galileo-and-newton-on-science-39435/>