Four Ethical Theories
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This paper defines and explains the basic philosophies behind four theories: utilitarianism, duty/respect, rights and diversity. The paper applies these four theories to the context of a dilemma in a business situation.
From the Paper:"Once utilitarians have claimed that morality is solely a matter of consequences, they have to address themselves to several questions. First, they need to specify the yardstick or criterion in terms of which consequences are measured. (Malcom, 1998) Typically, utilitarians claim that we ought to do whatever produces the greatest amount of utility. But then utility must be defined. Pleasure, happiness, and preference satisfaction are the three most common candidates for the definition of utility. Second, utilitarians need to indicate how the consequences can be measured. They need, in other words, to provide an account of how the yardstick can be applied, how utility can be measured. Third, utilitarians must address the question of how high their standards are, of how much utility we must strive for. How much, in other words, is enough utility? Although utilitarianism has often been stated in terms of maximizing utility, some have recently suggested that a less stringent and more attainable standard of expectations should be assumed. Fourth, utilitarians must indicate what types of things are to be judged in terms of their consequences. The three most common candidates here are acts, rules, and social policies. Finally, utilitarians must answer the question of whom these are consequences for. Clearly, they are not just the consequences for the individual agent--that would be ethical egoism. Do utilitarians take into account the consequences for all human beings or just for some subset, such as those in our own country?"
Cite this Term Paper:
Four Ethical Theories (2003, October 29) Retrieved June 30, 2022, from https://www.academon.com/term-paper/four-ethical-theories-41780/
"Four Ethical Theories" 29 October 2003. Web. 30 June. 2022. <https://www.academon.com/term-paper/four-ethical-theories-41780/>