Control of Protein Synthesis in Prokaryotes Term Paper by Rifkhan

Control of Protein Synthesis in Prokaryotes
A review of an experiment on the induction of -galactosidase in E. coli cells.
# 153750 | 2,663 words | 9 sources | APA | 2012 | SA
Published on Dec 05, 2013 in Biology (Biotechnology)

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This paper reviews an experiment that investigates the effect of the presence or absence of IPTG on the mechanism of -galactosidase enzyme induction in E. coli cells. The paper describes how the experiment disrupts the cells to determine the amount of -galactosidase enzyme. Furthermore, the paper reviews how four different RNA and protein synthesis inhibitors were used to study how inhibitors affect enzyme activity. The paper discusses the results and concludes that although the experiment should have proved the Jacob-Monod model, it did not follow the model, due to experimental errors.


From the Paper:

"In prokaryotes, genes that encode enzymes of certain metabolic pathways are often controlled as a group, with the genes encoding the proteins of the pathways being close together and under the control of a common promoter. This group of genes is called an operon. Usually these genes are not transcribed all the time. Rather the production of these proteins can be triggered by the presence of a substance called an inducer. This phenomenon is called induction. A particular well-studied example of an inducible protein is the enzyme -galactosidase, which helps to induce the lac operon (lactose operon) in the cells of Escherichia coli (E. coli) (Campbell & Farrell, 2009).
"The disaccharide lactose (a -galactoside) is the substrate of -galactosidase enzyme. This enzyme hydrolyzes the glycosidic linkage between galactose and glucose, which are the mono-saccharides that make up lactose. This reaction is very important for E. coli, as it helps it to make use of the lactose substrate, when grown in culture media. Allolactose, which is a metabolite of lactose, is the actual inducer of the lac operon and -galactosidase is the inducible enzyme. E. coli can survive with lactose as its only carbon source, but for this it needs -galactosidase to catalyze the first step in lactose degradation."

Sample of Sources Used:

  • Adamafio, N., Okine, L. & Adjimani, J. 2005, Chapter: Enzymes and metabolic regulation, In Integration and Control of Metabolism, 1st edn, iUniverse, Lincoln, NE, p.31.
  • Campbell, M.K. & Farrell, S.O. 2009, Chapter: Transcription of the genetic code: The biosynthesis of RNA, In Biochemistry, 6th edn, Thomson Brooks/Cole, Belmont, CA, pp. 296-297.
  • Clark, D.P. & Pazdernik, N.J. 2009, Chapter: DNA, RNA and protein, In Biotechnology: applying the genetic revolution, Elsevier Academic Press, Burlington, MA, pp. 41-42.
  • Finch, R.G., Greenwood, D., Notrby, S.R. & Whitley, R.J. (eds) 2003, Chapter: Modes of action, In Antibiotic and Chemotherapy: Anti-Infective Agents and their use in Therapy, 8th edn, Churchill Livingstone, PA, USA, pp. 15-18.
  • Henry, R.J (ed.) 2008, Chapter: DNA extraction from plant tissue, In Plant Genotyping II, SNP Technology, CAB International, Oxfordshire, UK, p. 223.

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APA Format

Control of Protein Synthesis in Prokaryotes (2013, December 05) Retrieved August 18, 2022, from

MLA Format

"Control of Protein Synthesis in Prokaryotes" 05 December 2013. Web. 18 August. 2022. <>