Conquering China: The Manchu's and the Mongols
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China has been governed twice by a foreign group. The first was that of the Mongols, in the thirteenth century. The second was that of the Manchus, in the seventeenth century. This paper explains the reasons why the Mongols were only able to govern for a relatively short period of time, during which they caused an incredible amount of discontent among the Chinese, and why the Manchus managed to be much more successful in controlling China until the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. The paper examines events preceding the Mongol and Manchu conquests, as well as the ways by which the invaders were able to establish sovereignty. The important aspects of the Mongol and Manchu administrations are also examined, with an emphasis on the differences in those administrations, which provides reasons for Mongol failure and Manchu success. Finally, the demise of both dynasties is examined.
From the Paper:"The Mongols originated in the northern steppe, the land of which was not very accommodating for sedentary agriculture. Consequently, the Mongols were a nomadic people, specialists in animal husbandry and horse riding. From a very young age the males and females learned to ride on horseback and shoot arrows, creating a highly skilled fighting force. The Mongols organized themselves into tribes, which on occasion united under one khan. The Mongols considered their free lifestyle superior to that of the stationary farmers to the south. The Han Chinese in contrast relied on agriculture to fund the economy. The literati, a group made up of learned men who spent their days philosophizing and painting in the countryside, were revered. Due to an established examination system, the society was relatively mobile, allowing men from low ranking families to work as high government officials. The Chinese felt themselves above the barbarian nomads to the north. This great disparity between the two cultures is the greatest cause of the inability of the Mongols to control China effectively."
Sample of Sources Used:
- Ebrey, Patricia Buckley, Anne Walthall, and James B. Palais. Pre-Modern East Asia: To 1800. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2006
- Ebrey, Patricia Buckley. Cambridge Illustrated History of China. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996
- Harrison, John A. The Chinese Empire. New York: Harvest/HBJ Press, 1972
- Roberts, J.A.G. A History of China. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2006
- Rodzinski, Witold. A History of China: Volume 1. Oxford: Pergamon Press, 1979
Cite this Term Paper:
Conquering China: The Manchu's and the Mongols (2009, March 08) Retrieved December 11, 2019, from https://www.academon.com/term-paper/conquering-china-the-manchusand-the-mongols-112804/
"Conquering China: The Manchu's and the Mongols" 08 March 2009. Web. 11 December. 2019. <https://www.academon.com/term-paper/conquering-china-the-manchusand-the-mongols-112804/>