Co-Regencies in Dynasty XII in Egypt
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The paper looks at the evidence for overlapping reigns in ancient Egypt that comes from monumental inscriptions that appear to commemorate the same event as occurring during the rule of two separate kings and dated with a different regnal year for each. The paper considers the debate surrounding these co-regencies, such as whether Amenemhet II elevated his son Senwosret II to a shared throne, and explains that when these "double dates" do not explicitly refer to a specific event, their attribution within the reigns of two separate but simultaneously sovereign kings is problematic. The paper looks at new evidence supporting other co-regencies and notes that the traditional texts employed to establish a rough chronology of the Middle Kingdom were never of much help at all. The paper also addresses the use of the astronomical cycle to approximate the modern year in which other events, reigns and dynasties took place.
From the Paper:"The oldest and best evidence for overlapping reigns comes from monumental inscriptions that appear to commemorate the same event as occurring during the rule of two separate kings and dated with a different regnal year for each. While these inscriptions are popularly classed as "the so-called double-dated stellae" (Callender 149), rock carvings and tomb facades bearing two (or more) royal names have also been discovered.
"A few of these shared inscriptions offer universally compelling arguments for overlapping reigns. The Aswan rock inscription, for example, identifies itself as having been carved "in year 3 under the majesty of Horus Senwosret II, corresponding with year 35 under the majesty of Horus Amenemhet II" (Delia 17). Both names receive identical honorific treatment--one on the left side of the composition, the other on the right--and serve to date a single inspection tour of local fortifications. The term "corresponding with" serves to unite the two regnal years as taking place simultaneously.
"But when these "double dates" do not explicitly refer to a specific event, their attribution within the reigns of two separate but simultaneously sovereign kings is more problematic (Stefanovic 98). Since Robert Delia's groundbreaking "New Look at Old Dates" (20-1), some previously unquestioned interpretations of the record as supporting overlapping regimes have become topics for relatively fierce back-and-forth debate."
Sample of Sources Used:
- Callender, Gae. "The Middle Kingdom Renaissance." In The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt, ed. Ian Shaw. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002.
- Creasman, Pearce Paul. "The Cairo Dahshur Boats." BA thesis. Texas A&M University, 2005.
- Delia, Robert D. "A New Look at Some Old Dates: A Reexamination of Twelfth Dynasty Double Dated Inscriptions." Bulletin of the Egyptological Seminar 1 (1979) 15-28.
- Greenberg, Gary. "Manetho's Twelfth Dynasty and the Standard Chronology." Journal of the Society for the Study of Egyptian Antiquities 29 (2002) 58-73.
- Hasel, Michael J. "Recent Developments in Near Eastern Chronology and Radiocarbon Dating." Origins 56 (2004) 6-31.
Cite this Term Paper:
Co-Regencies in Dynasty XII in Egypt (2013, February 20) Retrieved November 17, 2019, from https://www.academon.com/term-paper/co-regencies-in-dynasty-xii-in-egypt-152476/
"Co-Regencies in Dynasty XII in Egypt" 20 February 2013. Web. 17 November. 2019. <https://www.academon.com/term-paper/co-regencies-in-dynasty-xii-in-egypt-152476/>