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This paper describes the two frequently used types of Chi square tests; the Chi square goodness of fit test and the Chi square test for independence. The paper explains how these Chi square tests examine categorical variables and the frequencies of observed levels of those variables. The paper provides hypothetical and real examples of each test and includes all relevant calculations. Tables are included in the paper.
From the Paper:"Many research questions in psychology involve the use of categorical data. Categorical data differs from continuous data in that the numbers used represent non-quantitative variables. Categorical data has two forms: nominal and ordinal. Nominal data are put into categories that can not be ranked in any particular order. Essentially, nominal data are qualitative data for which frequencies of their various levels are determined. Because data must be distributed normally and be continuous for the use of parametric procedures, studies using categorical data must use alternative procedures that are distribution free; these tests are referred to as being nonparametric (Plonsky, 2006). The most commonly used procedures for analyzing nominal data are the chi square ( 2) tests. There are two frequently used types of chi square tests: the Chi square goodness of fit test and the Chi square test for independence. The Chi square goodness of fit test allows for the comparison of categorical data to that of a theoretical, expected chi square distribution. In other words, it allows one to compare observed values with expected the scores are independent of one another (Fruend, 1984)."
Sample of Sources Used:
- Bissonnette, V. (2006). Statistical tables. Retrieved December 7, 2007, from the Department of Psychology, Berry College Web site: http://fsweb.berry.edu/academiceducation/vbissonnette/tables/chisqr.pdf
- Freund, J. (1984). Modern Elementary Statistics. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
- Nagel, S. (2007). Personality as a possible predictor of academic success. Retrieved December 6, 2007, from the Department of Psychology, Missouri Western State University Web site: http://clearinghouse.missouriwestern.edu/manuscripts/534.asp
- Plonsky, M. (2006). Nonparametric statistics. Retrieved November 22, 2007, from thePsychological Statistics Web site: http://www.uwsp.edu/psych/stat/14/nonparm.htm
- Steele, M., Graves, M., Roberts, M, & Steele, R. (2007). Examining the influence of the Journal of Pediatric Psychology: An empirical approach. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 32, 150-153.
Cite this Term Paper:
Chi Square Tests (2012, May 15) Retrieved January 22, 2020, from https://www.academon.com/term-paper/chi-square-tests-150966/
"Chi Square Tests" 15 May 2012. Web. 22 January. 2020. <https://www.academon.com/term-paper/chi-square-tests-150966/>