Bipolar Disorder Comorbidities Term Paper by cardamine

Bipolar Disorder Comorbidities
An analysis of bipolar disorder and its comorbidities and the bipolar spectrum.
# 95834 | 3,514 words | 37 sources | MLA | 2006 | US
Published on Jun 03, 2007 in Psychology (Disorders) , Psychology (Theory)

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This paper describes bipolar disorder and its comorbidities. It also describes the emerging bipolar spectrum, which is a new way of looking at bipolar disorders. The paper also describes borderline personality disorder (BPD) and describes the arguments for and against its inclusion within the bipolar spectrum. It particularly describes the similarities between BPD and bipolar disorders.

Table of Contents:
Axis I Comorbidity
Axis II Comorbidity
Bipolar Spectrum and Temperament
Do Some Diagnoses Deserve a Bipolar Subgroup?

From the Paper:

"The understanding of bipolar disorders is in a state of flux. Traditionally, the disorder was defined as a period of severe manic and depressive episodes with periodic switches between these two poles and was referred to as manic- depression, and now bipolar disorder I. In the 1980's, it was recognized that there were clinical manifestations resembling manic-depression, however, the extremes in mania were not as severe (hypomania). This was termed bipolar II disorder. In situations where an individual experiences 2 or more years of the hypomanic symptoms with subthreshold periods of depressive symptoms a diagnosis of cyclothymic disorder is made. These diagnoses are included in the DSM-IV."

Sample of Sources Used:

  • Akiskal, H. (2005). Searching for behavioral indicators of bipolar II in patients presenting with major depressive episodes: The 'red sign,' the 'rule of three' and other biographic signs of temperamental extravagance, activation and hypomania. Journal of Affective Disorders, 84, 279-290.
  • Akiskal, H., Benazzi, F., Perugi, G., & Rihmer, Z. (2005). Agitated 'unipolar' depression re-conceptualized as a depressive mixed state: Implications for the antidepressant- suicide controversy. Journal of Affective Disorders, 85, 245-258.
  • Akiskal, H. (2004). Demystifying borderline personality: Critique of the concept and unorthodox reflections on its natural kinship with the bipolar spectrum. Acta Psychiatrica Scandenavia, 110, 401-407.
  • Akiskal, H. S., Hantouche, E., & Allilaire, J. (2003). Bipolar II with and without cyclothymic temperament: "Dark" and "sunny" expressions of soft bipolarity. Journal of Affective Disorders, 73: 49-57.
  • Akiskal, H. S. (2002). The bipolar spectrum: The shaping of a new paradigm in psychiatry. Current Psychiatry Reports, 4, 1-3.

Cite this Term Paper:

APA Format

Bipolar Disorder Comorbidities (2007, June 03) Retrieved August 08, 2022, from

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"Bipolar Disorder Comorbidities" 03 June 2007. Web. 08 August. 2022. <>