Can Cranberry Products Prevent Urinary Tract Infections? Research Proposal by Chirpylite

Can Cranberry Products Prevent Urinary Tract Infections?
A study into whether or not cranberry products play a part in preventing urinary tract infections.
# 113125 | 8,719 words | 32 sources | APA | 2009 | GB
Published on Mar 18, 2009 in Medical and Health (Medical Studies) , Medical and Health (Nursing)

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This paper explores the use of Cranberry as a prophylactic intervention for urinary tract infections (UTI). It presents a research proposal to compare groups of adult pre-menopausal women who are susceptible to UTI to determine if the participants consuming cranberries have a lower rate of UTI than those not consuming cranberries and if larger amounts results in a lower incidence of UTI. A review of seven pieces of primary literature, aimed at determining the effectiveness of cranberry at reducing UTIs in populations of; women, elderly men and women, spinal cord injured adults and children with a neurogenic bladder (a bladder dysfunction associated with neurological malfunction) is also undertaken. The literature was selected because it represented a cross section of society, allowing comparisons to be made across different populations. The literature is analysed to allow the current writer to form opinions based upon the evidence. Two tables and a glossary of terms are included with the paper.

Background Information
Aim of the Literature Review
Search Strategy
Objectives of the studies
Subjects & Settings
Methods & interventions
Cost Effectiveness
Ethical Consideration
Populations of elderly women, and men and women
Populations of women
Populations of children with a neurogenic bladder
Population of spinal cord injured patients
Cranberry Interventions
Conclusion and direction for the future
Research Proposal
Study Problem/Purpose
Relevance/Study Rationale
Literature Review
Research Objectives/Research Questions
The Secondary aim is to determine;
Study Design
Inclusion Criteria
Exclusion Criteria
Identifying and approaching participants
Baseline Data Collection
Trial Data Collection
Sample Size and Analysis Plan
Sample Size
Data Management
Ethical Considerations
Plans for Dissemination
Reflective Conclusion
Appendix a. Interventions between studies

From the Paper:

"Since the early twentieth century, before the invention of antibiotics, consumption of berries from the vaccinium species (in particular Cranberries) was associated with a reduction of bacterial urinary tract and bladder infections. Seminal research carried out by Blatherwick (1914) initially identified benzoic acid within cranberries as the main therapeutic agent. Blatherwick (1914) hypothesised that Benzoic acid was digested then excreted as hippuric acid, having effect upon the urine by altering the ph, creating an environment which prevented the bacteria from multiplying.
"Scientific opinion changed during the late twentieth century after further studies were carried out. Sabota (1984) reproduced in-vitro samples from both humans and mice. He found that if bacteria were pre-incubated with Cranberry juice prior to being introduced to uroepithelial cells, the adherence capability of the bacteria was significantly reduced. Ofek, Goldhar, Zafriri, Lis, Adar and Sharon (1991) identified that the active ingredient proanthocyanidin, contained within the Cranberry, was the main constituent which interfered with the bacteria's ability to adhere to the uroepithelial cell walls. The new knowledge regarding Cranberries and their ability to prevent UTIs changed the future direction of scientific investigations and increased the popularity of Cranberry."

Sample of Sources Used:

  • Altman D (1996), Better reporting of randomized controlled trials: The CONSORT statement. In Sibbald B and Roland M. (1998) Understanding controlled trials: Why are randomised controlled trials important? British Medical Journal Vol.316 p201.
  • Avorn J, Monane M, Gurwitz J, Glynn R, Choodnovskiy I and Lipsitz L (1994) Reduction of Bacteriuria and Pyuria After Ingestion of Cranberry Juice Journal of the American Medical Association, Vol 271 (10) pp751-754
  • Bailey D, Dalton, Daugherty, Tempesta (2007), Can a concentrated Cranberry extract prevent recurrent urinary tract infections in women? A pilot study Phytomedicine 14 237-241
  • Beauchamp T and Childress J (2004), Principles of Biomedical Ethics, 5th edition, New York: Oxford University Press.
  • Bishop M C (2005) Urinary Tract Infection, Surgery: Renal and Urology Vol 23 (4) pp134-136

Cite this Research Proposal:

APA Format

Can Cranberry Products Prevent Urinary Tract Infections? (2009, March 18) Retrieved August 18, 2022, from

MLA Format

"Can Cranberry Products Prevent Urinary Tract Infections?" 18 March 2009. Web. 18 August. 2022. <>