Traumatic Brain Injuries (TBI) Research Paper by scribbler

Traumatic Brain Injuries (TBI)
An overview of the causes and symtoms of traumatic brain injuries with a focus on two different studies.
# 152494 | 2,819 words | 8 sources | MLA | 2013 | US
Published on Feb 24, 2013 in Psychology (Disorders) , Medical and Health (General)

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This paper examines how traumatic brain injuries (TBI) are due to sudden trauma to the head that causes damage to the brain and how it can happen after sudden blunt force or piercing of the brain by an object. The paper also looks at how the symptoms can range from mild to severe, depending on the extent of the injury to the brain and how loss of consciousness for seconds to minutes can happen when trauma is present. In particular, the paper reviews two different studies on the topic, "Outcome After Traumatic Brain Injury: Pathway Analysis of Contributions from Premorbid, Injury Severity, and Recovery Variables," Novack et al., (2008) and "Mild Traumatic Brain Injury in U.S. Soldiers Returning from Iraq" (Hoge et al 2008).

From the Paper:

"Soldiers were also asked to rate their general health on a scale with a range of "poor" to "excellent", as well as to note how many "sick call" appointments they had gone to, and how many total days of work they were forced to miss in the past month due to illness. The physical symptoms were measured by the Patient Health Questionnaire 15-item somatic severity scale (PHQ-15) (Hoge et al 2008). The scale is usually done on a range of 0 to 30 where the greater numbers show a higher level of severity of symptoms. For the study done here, however, the range was 0 to 28 as there was a question on menstrual cramps that was excluded because of the low number of women in the sample (2008). Fifteen on the scale was considered high severity. There were also five more questions that were asked (not part of the PHQ-15) pertaining to post-concussive symptoms that had to do with memory, balance, ringing in ears, concentration, and irritability (2008)."

Sample of Sources Used:

  • Levin, H.S., Gary, H.E., Eisenberg, H.M., Ruff, R.M., Barth, J.T., & Kreutzer J. et al. (1990). Neurobehavioral outcome 1 year after severe head injury experience of the Traumatic Coma Data Bank. J Neurosurg, 44: 699-709.
  • Dikmen, S.S., Temkin, N.R., Machamer, J.E., Holubkov, A.L., Fraser, R.T., & Winn, H.R. (2004) Employment following traumatic head injuries. Archives Neurol, 51: 177-86.
  • Cifu, D.X., Keyser-Marcus, L., Lopez, E., Wehman, P., Kreutzer, J.S., & Englander, J. et al. (1997). Acute predictors of successful return to work 1 year after traumatic brain injury: a multicenter analysis. Archive Phys Med Rehabil, 78: 125-31.
  • Corrigan, J.D., Smith-Knapp, K., & Granger, C.V. Outcomes in the first five years after traumatic brain injury. Brain injury, 9:11-20.
  • Gollaher, K., High, W., Sherer, M., Bergloff, P., Boake, C., & Young, M.E. et al. (1998) Prediction of employment outcome one to three years following traumatic brain injury (TBI). Brain Injury, 12:255-63.

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APA Format

Traumatic Brain Injuries (TBI) (2013, February 24) Retrieved May 27, 2023, from

MLA Format

"Traumatic Brain Injuries (TBI)" 24 February 2013. Web. 27 May. 2023. <>