The Personalized System of Instruction Research Paper by Nicky

An overview of the history and principles behind the personalized system of instruction methodology.
# 151409 | 2,734 words | 31 sources | APA | 2012 | US
Published on Jun 10, 2012 in Education (Theory)

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The personalized system of instruction methodology (PSI) was proposed as a method of instruction by Keller (1965) that would effectively reduce the teacher's role and focus instead on the mastery of the students of material through independent work and testing frequently. This paper examines how the PSI is a method for instruction that serves to motivate students and enables them to not only work harder but also enables their capacity to learn more content. It also examines how the method has been proven to be effective across a range of ages and in a variety of disciplines. The paper also demonstrates that empirical evidence exists for the use of the PSI and notes the capacity of computer technology for use in delivery of learning content via the PSI methodology.

Introduction and History
Components of Evidence-Based Behavior-Analytic Principles
Description of Strategy Implementation (Program/Design)
Limitations of Empirical Evidence
Empirical Evidence of Effectiveness
Summary and Conclusion

From the Paper:

"Roth relates that many logistic problems can arise both administratively and logistically and specifically states that a big issue is the "recruitment and training of proctors... especially if adequate funding to pay proctors is not available. Suitable facilities for testing, grading, tutoring, and studying must be provided. The administration and other faculty are sometimes suspicious of a course that produces too many A's." (Roth, 1998) Roth notes as did the work of Zurcher (1988) that one problem is that of procrastination and this is particularly true "...if a large number of students come in to take unit tests near the end of the course. It is particularly a problem for students who are overloaded, and we often counsel such students to drop the course and take it when they have a less demanding schedule. We give students who finish the course early an opportunity to take the final exam early and then repeat the final if they are not satisfied with the first score."

Sample of Sources Used:

  • Gallup, Howard (1995) Personalized System of Instruction: Behavior Modification in Education. Psychology Club Talk, 11 Apr 1995. Available online at:
  • Gifford, Vernon D. and Vicks, Joann (2006) A Comparison of the Personalized System of Instruction and a Conventional Biology Course on the Achievement of Junior College Freshmen. Journal of Research in Science Teaching. Vol. 19, Issue 8. 18 August 2006. Abstract online available at:
  • Keller, F. S. & Sherman, J. G. (1982). The PSI handbook: Essays on personalized systematic instruction. Lawrence, Kansas: TRI Publications.
  • Keller, F. S. (1968). Goodbye teacher . . . Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 1, 79-89.
  • Keller, F. S. (1978). Instructional technology and educational reform: 1977. The Behavior Analyst, 1 (1), 48-53.

Cite this Research Paper:

APA Format

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MLA Format

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