Sex Differences in Visual-Spatial Memory Research Paper by Mandi

Sex Differences in Visual-Spatial Memory
An analysis of sex differences in visual-spatial learning.
# 110414 | 4,133 words | 19 sources | MLA | 2008 | US

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The paper discusses sex differences in visual spatial learning and memory and notes that few studies can explain the causes for these differences and what can effectively alter the results. The paper presents a literature review on this issue and discusses the following queries: (a) At what age do the sex differences occur? (b) Are the sex differences consistent over time? (c) Are the sex differences consistent across species? (d) And is there a relation of physiological behaviors to the difference in visual-spatial abilities?

What is Visual Spatial Memory?
How Does One Test Visual Spatial Memory?
Current Findings
Beginning Hormonal Research
Animal Findings
Motivational Studies
Proposed Future Studies

From the Paper:

"Males tend to have a more right hemisphere visual-spatial focus than their female counterparts. Females tend to have a more bi-laterally activated visual-spatial memory. These differences have been attributed to an ecological approach, which explains that women developed a need for more verbal abilities in Broca's area, while males needed to focus on the hunting aspect survival and developed a larger area in the hippocampus and para-hippocampal area devoted to visual-spatial abilities. This fact holds true for all species that have been studied in relation to visual-spatial learning and memory. It is widely accepted to be located specifically in the hippocampus of both humans and animals. Spatial tasks are performed through the right parietal regions across these species."

Sample of Sources Used:

  • Burton, Leslie. Gender Differences in Relations of Mental Rotation, Verbal Fluency, and SAT Scores to Finger Length Ratios as Hormonal Indexes. Developmental Neuropsychology. Vol 28(1), 2005, pp. 493-505
  • Connor, J. M., Serbin, L. A., & Schmackman, A. Sex Differences in Children's Response to Training on a Visual-Spatial Test. Developmental Psychology, 1977, 13, 293-294.
  • Fagot, B.I. & Patterson, G.R. An in vivo analysis of reinforcing contingencies for sex-role behaviors in the preschool child. Developmental Psychology, 1969, 1, 562-568.
  • Haun, D., J . Call , G . Janzen , S . Levinson. Evolutionary Psychology of Spatial Representations in the Hominidae. Current Biology, Volume 16 , Issue 17 , Pages 1736 - 1740.
  • Hoyer & Roodin, W. & Roodin, P. (2005). Adult Development and Aging, Fifth Edition. New York, NY: McGraw Hill. The 2003 5th edition.

Cite this Research Paper:

APA Format

Sex Differences in Visual-Spatial Memory (2008, December 23) Retrieved February 05, 2023, from

MLA Format

"Sex Differences in Visual-Spatial Memory" 23 December 2008. Web. 05 February. 2023. <>