Music Therapy Reducing Anxiety Research Paper by Nicky

Looks at the effect of music therapy on reducing anxiety in presurgical cardiac patients
# 149707 | 3,560 words | 28 sources | APA | 2011 | US
Published on Dec 28, 2011 in Psychology (Therapies) , Medical and Health (General) , Music Studies (General)

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This paper presents an extensive literature review of research especially of studies about music therapy and it efficacy as a treatment for reducing the anxiety in presurgical patients. Next, the author underscores that this study indicates that the use of music as an intervention to decrease anxiety is explicit and beneficial for cardiac patients; however, music intervention is not music therapy if a music therapist is not participating in the cardiac surgery setting. The paper expresses the need for further studies to establish criterion for applying music therapy and methodological procedures including participatory music therapy, such as sing-along or music discussion activities.

Table of Contents:
Music Therapy
Music Therapy as Receptive Form and Active Form
Music Impact on Anxiety
Anxiety in Presurgical Patients
State Anxiety
Presurgical Anxiety
Cardiac Patients
Music Therapy with Cardiac Surgical Patients
Summary of Literature Review

From the Paper:

"One "Journal of Music Therapy" article written by Pelletier (2004) discusses meta-analytic review articles of 22 quantitative studies using music to decrease arousal due to stress. Results reveal that music alone and music-assisted relaxation techniques significantly decrease arousal (d=+.67). The purpose of this study was to analyze the diverse effects of recorded music combined with relaxation techniques on anxiety and stress. This study conducted a meta-analytic review of quantitative research on the use of music-assisted relaxation techniques versus non-music techniques in individuals under stressful conditions. Research included several criteria to focus on specific variables. Stress or anxiety was attributable to one of six factors: (a) terminal diagnosis, (b) surgery, (c) other medical procedures, (d) labor, (e) preparation for labor, and (f) researcher-induced stress or an arousal condition with a self-reported test indicating levels of stress and anxiety. Researchers mostly used State Trait Anxiety Inventory as a self-reported pre-measure of stress.Other criteria included: (a) measured effects of two contrasting conditions, music combined with a stress reduction technique (passive listening, GIM, progressive muscle relaxation, vibrotactile stimulation, verbal suggestion, or a combination of more than two different techniques) versus no music condition; (b) use of recorded music; (c) experimental studies with group or individual subject designs; (d) reported sufficient quantitative information to be analyzed for an effect size; (e) a total N greater than one; and (f) contained data reported as behavioral, self-report, or physiological (heart rate)."

Sample of Sources Used:

  • Ambulatory anesthesia music and preoperative anxiety: A randomized, controlled study (2002).
  • Argstatter, H., Haberbosch, W., & Bolay, H. (2006). Study of the effectiveness of musical stimulation during intracardiac catheterization. Clin Res Cardiol, 95,514-522.
  • Bally, K., Campbell, D., Chesnick, K., & Tranmer J.(2003) Effects of patient-controlled music therapy during coronary angiography on procedural pain and anxiety distress syndrome. Critical Care Nurse, 23(2), 50-58.
  • Bernardi, L., Porta, C., & Sleight, P. (2006). Cardiovascular, cerebrovaschular, and respiratory changes induced by different type of music in musicians and non-musicians; the importance of silence. Heart, 92, 445-452.
  • Bruscia, K. (1998). Defining music therapy. Gilsum, PA:Barcelona.

Cite this Research Paper:

APA Format

Music Therapy Reducing Anxiety (2011, December 28) Retrieved March 21, 2023, from

MLA Format

"Music Therapy Reducing Anxiety" 28 December 2011. Web. 21 March. 2023. <>