Medulloblastoma: A Review Research Paper by tpmaven

Medulloblastoma: A Review
An examination of the symptoms, etiology, diagnosis and treatment of medulloblastoma, the most common malignant pediatric brain tumor.
# 153892 | 972 words | 0 sources | 2012 | US
Published by on Jun 11, 2014 in Medical and Health (Medical Studies) , Medical and Health (General)

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From the Paper:

"Treatment options for medulloblastoma include surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy. (Packer). In treating medulloblastomas, it is important to differentiate high and low risk patients in order to provide the most effective, safest treatment. (Sarkar et al) Medulloblastomas can differ on the molecular level in terms of nonrandom chromosomal abnormalities, gene profiling, and abnormalities in signal transduction pathways. Histopathologically, medulloblastomas can be classified as classic, desmoplastic, extensive nodularity and advanced neuronal differentiation, LC/A medulloblastomas, melanotic medulloblastomas, and medullomyoblastomas. (Sarkar et al) In determining what type of medulloblastoma a child has, doctors can determine its risk and dictate treatment more effectively.
"Surgery can be quite dangerous, with 20% of children developing severe neurological problems as a result. If surgery is chosen, total resection of the tumor is the best option to promote survival. (Packer) Radiation to the entire brain, spine, and the tumor site itself is often effective. The survival rate from radiation has risen from 20% to 50% during the past 20 years. (Packer) Chemotherapy improves the survival rate for those with tumors that cannot be resected or have spread beyond the primary site at the time of diagnosis. (Packer)
"Prognosis: The prognosis for children with medulloblastomas has improved from the 1970s statistic of 2% to 30% of children being disease-free and potentially cured five years after diagnosis, to a 50% to 70% five-year survival rate now. (Sarkar et al) Of those who survive, however, long-term effects of treatment may be seen. These include hearing loss, loss of height, endocrine problems, and the development of secondary tumors in areas that received radiation. (Children's Hospital of Boston) Relapse is treated by continuing chemotherapy and /or radiation, but these treatments do not provide a cure."

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