Hunger Index, Poverty Reduction and UN Millennium Development Goals--A Global Perspective
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This article discusses the the factors used to calculate the Global Hunger Index (GHI): the proportion of undernourished as a percentage of the population, the prevalence of underweight children under the age of five, and the mortality rate of children under the age of five. It also suggests the measures required to be taken for each region to improve GHI in their respective countries. Several charts, and tables are included with the paper.
From the Paper:"India's Hunger Index consists of the three components in the following ratio:-- 20:42.5:7.4 (or simply speaking, it is 2.7: 5.7:1). The average of these three values is 23.3, which is India's GHI, 2008. This ratio between various components of the GHI varies from country to country and from state to state in a country. This suggests that the underweight children's proportion is more than double of proportion of the undernourished children, which needs to be explained. It is quite understandable that underweight of all the children may not prove to be fatal. There can be various reasons for that, one of the most important being the issues connected with measurement of malnutrition. Purnima Menon, Anil Deolalikar and Anjor Bhaskar in The India State Hunger Index: Comparisons Of Hunger Across States(2008) have analysed the trends of various States of India based on data taken mainly from NFHS-III and 61th round of National Sample Survey, in which the norms for malnutrition and poverty differ from the FAO standards. They have explained the variation of GHI from 1994 and 2008 in terms of the States' growth rates (SGDP) during the period. As per the study, though there exists a strong relationship between India State Hunger Index (ISHI) and population below poverty-line, a few states deviate from the predicted line. Gujarat and Madhya Pradesh are clear "negative outliers", meaning that they have a much higher hunger index than would be expected based on their poverty level; Punjab, Orissa and Kerala, on the other hand, stand out as "positive deviants"- that is, they have significantly lower hunger index scores than would be expected of states with their level of poverty. Similarly, they found an inverse relationship between the per capita growth and ISHI but there also, there were deviant states. For instance, Madhya Pradesh again stands out as having a much higher level of hunger than would be expected based on its per capita income; Jharkhand and Chhattisgarh are also "negative outliers", as is Maharashtra which has a hunger index almost as high as that of Orissa , but a NSDP twice as large. Several states are also doing better than expected given their economic level, with Punjab being a noticeable positive outlier, and, to a smaller extent, Kerala, Assam and Rajasthan. For these deviations, their study suggests that a closer look at the past and the present investments by the states in social protection, health and nutrition can help inform the debate on the policy initiatives to protect population against hunger even in face of poverty."
Sample of Sources Used:
- United Nations Statistics Division-Demographic and Social Statistics http://unstats.un.org/unsd/demographic/products/indwm/ww2005/t.... accessed on 03/03/20010.
- Registrar General, India (1999, 2001); Dyson (2002); Retherford and Mishra (2001a).
- The World Health Report 2005: make every mother and child count. Geneva, WHO, 2005.
- Mortality database. World Health Organization.
- Tim Dyson, (2001), "On the Future of Human Fertility in India", Department of Population Studies, London School of Economics, U.K.
Cite this Research Paper:
Hunger Index, Poverty Reduction and UN Millennium Development Goals--A Global Perspective (2010, March 26) Retrieved March 06, 2021, from https://www.academon.com/research-paper/hunger-index-poverty-reduction-and-un-millennium-development-goals-a-global-perspective-119026/
"Hunger Index, Poverty Reduction and UN Millennium Development Goals--A Global Perspective" 26 March 2010. Web. 06 March. 2021. <https://www.academon.com/research-paper/hunger-index-poverty-reduction-and-un-millennium-development-goals-a-global-perspective-119026/>