Gender-Related Factors in Development Research Paper by Brij

Gender-Related Factors in Development
A discussion of the gender-related issues concerning the economic development of a country.
# 65067 | 3,418 words | 6 sources | MLA | 2006 | IN
Published on Apr 23, 2006 in Women Studies (General) , Economics (General) , Gender and Sexuality (General)

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This paper makes an effort to examine whether, how and the extent to which the "Empowerment of Women" and "Economic Independence of Women" can contribute to development in terms of growth of GDP per capita. The paper also proposes to examine the factors that are correlated with "women empowerment" and "economic independence of women".

Table of Contents
Impact of GEM and Other Variables on GNI per Capita
Effect of GDI and GEM on GDP per Capita (PPP US$)
GDI and Other Variables
GEM and Other Variables
Factors Affecting Poverty
Determinants of Total Fertility Rates

From the Paper:

"Development is often taken to mean rising incomes. A still common view equates development with growth in average income. Though there has been a shift in emphasis since 1970s to a focus on the distribution of incomes. The 1990 Human development Report produced by the UNDP marked a different view of the meaning of development and has a distinct influence of the work of Amartya Sen. The essence of this view is that human development -what people can actually do and be -is the overriding purpose of economic development. Underdevelopment is viewed as the lack of certain basic capabilities, rather than lack of income per se. This approach which is critical of both "opulence" (income, wealth or commodity possession) and "utility" (whether interpreted as happiness, desire fulfillment or simply choice) as a measure of well-being, argues that "well-being" has to do with being well, which is about being able to live long, being well-nourished, being healthy, being literate and so on. The value of living lies in living & not in possessing things. This approach has been named as "human development approach". However, there can be no denying the fact that the capabilities can be built through increase in income. Economic growth expands capabilities directly. As average incomes increase, the population has greater command over the relevant goods and services--food, healthcare, education, and so on-which in turn leads to improved health & nutrition, longer life expectancy, and better education. However, enormous literature is available on relation between GDP per capita and the "Human Development Index (HDI)". HDI is calculated by taking into account "a long healthy life" represented by life expectancy at birth; "Knowledge", which is represented by "Adult Literacy Rate" and "Gross Enrollment Ratio" and the third parameter "a decent standard of living" which is represented by GDP per Capita (PPP US$)."

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