Construct Development and Scale Creation Research Paper by Nicky

An analysis of test anxiety and how it affects the performance of African-American students on the SAT I.
# 145689 | 1,396 words | 5 sources | MLA | 2010 | US
Published on Nov 23, 2010 in Education (General) , African-American Studies (General)

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The paper analyzes how test anxiety affects the way African-American students perform on the SAT I. It explores the fact that test anxiety has been identified as a significantly detrimental factor upon student performance, both in the testing context and beyond. The paper also discusses previous literature that has indicated that more than one third of the students in U.S. schools experience some form of scientifically-defined test anxiety and explains that is has only increased with the greater prevalence of standardized testing and testing requirements for college entrance exams such as the SAT. Additionally, the paper concludes that it is because of the lack of self-confidence that either spawns test anxiety or derives from lower-than-expected test performance and that test anxiety can have long-standing negative effects on students' learning and academic performance.

From the Paper:

"The validity of the test may be justified, given in the fact that its approach is derived from a test previously determined to be useful in assessing positive and negative test anxiety, the Test Anxiety Inventory for Children and Adolescents (TAICA). This test is useful because it can bring to light certain aspects of anxiety that are manifested somatically, even if the student is unwilling to admit about worrying about test performance on the more overt questions. Then, if a strong correlation was shown between high levels of test anxiety amongst African-American students and a lower-than-expected performance on the SAT when compared with their white counterparts, more qualitative work could be done to do a deeper examination of why this might be the case."

Sample of Sources Used:

  • Bodas, Jaee, Thomas H. Ollendick, & Anuradha V. Test anxiety in Indian children: A cross-cultural perspective. (2008, December). Anxiety, Stress & Coping: An International Journal. 21(4). 387-401.
  • Lowe, Patricia A., Steven W. Lee, Kristin M. Witteborg, Keri W. Prichard, Megan E. Luhr, Christopher M. Cullinan, Bethany A. Mildren, Jennifer M. Raad, Rebecca A. Cornelius, & Melissa Janik. (2008, September). The Test Anxiety Inventory for Children and Adolescents (TAICA): Examination of the psychometric properties of a new multidimensional measure of test anxiety among elementary and secondary school students. Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment. 26 (3): 215-230
  • Reeve, Charlie L., Silvia Bonaccio, Jennifer E. Charles. (2008, August). A policy-capturing study of the contextual antecedents of test anxiety Personality and Individual Differences. 45(3): 243-248.
  • SAT I: A faulty instrument for predicting college success. (2007, August 20th). Fair Test. Retrieved January 5, 2009 at
  • Trochim, William M.K. (2006). Types of reliability. Social Research Methods. Retrieved January 5, 2009 at

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APA Format

Construct Development and Scale Creation (2010, November 23) Retrieved April 17, 2021, from

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