Cognitive Processing and Memory Recognition Research Paper by chachacha

Cognitive Processing and Memory Recognition
This paper looks at the effects of levels of cognitive processing on memory recognition.
# 115830 | 3,235 words | 13 sources | APA | 2006 | NZ
Published on Aug 13, 2009 in Education (Education Psychology) , Education (Theory) , Psychology (Memory) , Language (General)

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In this article, the writer discusses a study that looks at different levels of encoding processes, in terms of the meaning of a word and orientating response, influence human memory performance for word recognition. The writer explains that six acquaintances of the undergraduate psychology students, who were over the age of 12 and familiar with the English language, participated in an orientating task to induce them to process different levels of encoding. After their recognition memory was unexpectedly tested subsequent to distraction tasks. The writer notes that results indicated that recognition was better when words were encoded at deeper levels. The other hypothesis, that words receiving a positive response would be recognised more than words receiving a negative response, was also supported. The paper concludes that, although the study needs to be replicated with a larger sample and in more consistent experiment conditions, deeper levels of processes involving semantic analysis and a positive orientating response lead to better memory performance for word recognition.


From the Paper:

"To induce their participants to process several levels of encoding, different types of orientating questions about a word were formulated. These included questions concerned with structural, phonological or semantic characteristics of a word that were thought to produce different levels of encoding from a relatively shallow level to deeper levels. Their participants were unexpectedly given a memory test after answering a series of these questions. Craik and Tuvling found that different orientating questions were associated with the memory performance. As they predicted, the words that were questioned about the semantic characteristics, that were supposed to be processed deepest, achieved the highest memory performance compared to the other words. In addition, words that were answered by a positive response ("yes") to the orientating question had higher accuracy recognition than words that were given a negative response ("no")."

Sample of Sources Used:

  • Atkinson C. R., & Shiffrin, M.R. (1968). Human memory: A proposed system and its control processes. In J. M. Gardiner (Ed.). Readings in human memory. ( pp. 25-56). London: Methuen.
  • Baddeley, A. (1997). Human memory: theory and practice. Hove: Psychology Press.
  • Craik, F.I.M. (1999). Levels of encoding and retrieval. In B. H. Challis & B. M. Velichkovsky. (Eds.). Stratification in cognition and consciousness. (pp. 97-104). Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
  • Craik, F.I.M. (2002). Memory levels of processing. In P. B. Baltes & N. J. Smelsser (Eds.). International encyclopaedia of the social and behavioral sciences. (pp. 9593-9597). Amsterdam: Elsevier.
  • Craik, F.I.M., & Lockhart, R.S. (1972). Levels of processing: A framework for memory research. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 11, 671-684.

Cite this Research Paper:

APA Format

Cognitive Processing and Memory Recognition (2009, August 13) Retrieved December 05, 2023, from

MLA Format

"Cognitive Processing and Memory Recognition" 13 August 2009. Web. 05 December. 2023. <>