Calcium Chloride in Concrete, Cement, and Masonry Mortars Research Paper

Calcium Chloride in Concrete, Cement, and Masonry Mortars
A study on the effect of calcium chloride in concrete, cement and masonry mortar.
# 154045 | 1,617 words | 0 sources | 2013 | IR

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From the Paper:

"Regulations declare the admixtures are some materials except water, aggregate, hydraulic cement and fiber that are used in concrete, and should be added immediately before or during mixing [1]. When constructing masonry mortar in cold weather, the mortar freezes which leads to the reduction of the bond among the masonry units. Because of the high water content in mortar, expansive forces generated as the water freezes can result in cracking of the masonry units. The most commonly used admixtures for mortar during cold weather construction are anti-freezes and accelerators. Some anti-freezes are actually misnomers for accelerators, but true anti-freezes include alcohol. If the quantity of alcohol is sufficient to lower the freezing point of the mortar, compressive and bond strengths are reduced. Therefore, anti-freeze admixtures are not recommended. So it's strongly suggested to use accelerating additives. Accelerators speed hydration of Portland cement [2].
"The chemical materials used as admixtures are often in two categories. Some of these chemical materials have an immediate effect on water traction and with absorbing cement particles; start to influence the cement-water system. Other materials will be divided to their ionic materials and have influence on chemical reactions between cement and water from minutes to hours after water is added [3]. At the first contact between calcium chloride solution and cement, both gypsum and chloride through some reactions create a little calcium trisulfurlaminat and calcium chlorolaminate.
"Then gypsum continues its reaction while chloride calcium no longer makes reaction, but it helps the hydration of silicate. When all gypsum is used, again calcium chloride makes reaction with C3A until chloride in solution is finished [4]. Calcium Chloride is an effective accelerator, but it promotes corrosion of adjacent steels. It can also contribute to masonry efflorescence and spalling [5]."

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