Black Males in Prison
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This paper examines how the number of incarcerated black males is rising and how in 1997 a black male was found to have a 1 in 4 chance of ending up in prison during his life span compared to a white male who only had a 1 in 23 chance of receiving the same outcome. The paper further examines how the impact of growing up in poverty, particularly those living in economically depressed areas, is a topic of increasing concern as the incidence of violent crime in poor urban communities continues to rise and how, due to the higher rates of impoverished conditions, African American males are at higher risk for problems with health, welfare, housing, nutrition, and education. The paper also looks at how, although the U.S. Department of Justice does not identify reasons for this increase in black males in the prison system, other studies have focused on the increase in arrests for drug offenses, an increase in violent crimes in inner cities, and the introduction more severe sentencing laws.
From the Paper:"The trend in educational institutions parallels the tendency of other social service agencies, where rather than serving as sources of hope and opportunity to move out of poverty, they add to the marginalization and stigmatization that black males experience (Noguera, 2003). Other economic factors such as unemployment and lack of employment opportunities have taken their toll on the success rates of black males. For example, the black male unemployment rate is at times twice that of their white counterparts (Shihadeh & Steffensmeier, 1994). A further compounding factor is the lower average wage earned by black males. Trends have seen a decline in low-skill high wage job availability and their replacement with low-wage high skill employment opportunities as manufacturing plants are increasingly being relocated overseas (Oliver, 2006 ). Black males are at a disadvantage in this market due to the disproportionate struggles in educational settings."
Sample of Sources Used:
- Blumenstein, A. (1982). On the racial disproportionality of United States' prison populations. Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, 73(3), 1259-1281.
- National Center for Poverty. (2008). Poverty facts. Retrieved from http://www.npc.umich.edu/poverty/
- Noguera, P. A. (2003). The trouble with black boys: The role and influence of environmental and cultural factors on the academic performance of African American males. Urban Education, 38(4), 431-459. doi: 10.1177/0042085903254969
- Oliver, W. (2006). "The streets": An alternative black male socialization institution. Journal of Black Studies, 36(6), 918-937.
- Shihadeh, E. S. & Steffensmeier, D. J. (1994). Economic inequality, family disruption, and urban black violence: Cities as units of stratification and social control. Social Forces, 73(2), 729-751.
Cite this Research Paper:
Black Males in Prison (2013, February 24) Retrieved May 25, 2019, from https://www.academon.com/research-paper/black-males-in-prison-152495/
"Black Males in Prison" 24 February 2013. Web. 25 May. 2019. <https://www.academon.com/research-paper/black-males-in-prison-152495/>