Arabic Numerals Research Paper by Nicky

An analysis of the history of Arabic numerals.
# 145297 | 1,793 words | 8 sources | MLA | 2010 | US
Published on Nov 02, 2010 in History (General) , Mathematics (General)

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This paper offers a glimpse into the history of the Arab numeral system in terms of development, expansion, as well as modern day features. It attempts to answer questions relating to the people who played important roles in the expansion of the Arab system, as well as the steps taken by the system to reach its contemporaneous status. The paper also looks at other numerical systems as well and contains illustrations and a table.

The Beginnings
Arabic Numbers in the Middle Ages
The Arab System Today
Conclusions and Other Mentions

From the Paper:

"As children and students, we are taught at home and in school that the numeric systems we use today are called Arabic. On a closer analysis however, one would observe that the symbols called Arabic and now used within the Arab world are different from the symbols we use and call Arab. The explanation for this is rather simple - during the Middle Ages, the Arab people were using two sets of numerals, and the Europeans adopted one of these styles. In time however, the Arabs renounced one style and came to only use one. They renounced the system adopted by the Europeans, ergo, the difference in the Arab numerals used today by the Arabs and the rest of the world (World Reference, 2007)."

Sample of Sources Used:

  • Abdeljaouad, M., Some Elements in the History of Arab Mathematics, University of Palermo, 2003, Retrieved from on December 3, 2008
  • Baumler, J., Numbers in the Middle East - Understanding Arab Numbers, Bella Online, 2008, last accessed on December 3, 2008
  • King, Z., The Story of Our Numbers, Rosen Classroom, 2004
  • Wudka, J., The Middle Ages, 1998, University of California, last accessed on December 3, 2008
  • Hindu Arabic Numeric Medieval Ideograms, Geocities, last accessed on December 3, 2008

Cite this Research Paper:

APA Format

Arabic Numerals (2010, November 02) Retrieved August 10, 2022, from

MLA Format

"Arabic Numerals" 02 November 2010. Web. 10 August. 2022. <>