Ancient Palmyra, Dura-Europos and Hatra Research Paper

Ancient Palmyra, Dura-Europos and Hatra
A look at the ancient Roman Near Eastern communities of Palmyra, Dura-Europos and Hatra.
# 146760 | 5,891 words | 28 sources | APA | 2008 | GB
Published on Jan 15, 2011 in History (Greek and Roman) , History (Middle Eastern)

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This paper gives an in-depth examination of the Roman communities of the ancient Near East, Palmyra, Dura-Europos and Hatra, considering their differences regarding economy, society and religious culture. The paper describes each community and its importance to this region at length, beginning with Palmyra. Palmyra is described as maintaining a distict Graeco-Roman and Oriental culture, despite being fully colonized by Rome. Next, the paper elaborates on Dura-Europos, which is seen as the center of Greek influence upon the villages of the middle Euphrates. Finally, the paper details life in Hatra, which was a vassal kingdom under the influence of the Parthians. As such, its society and culture were all connected with the and all other aspects, as connected with the Parthian empire, despite Roman rule. Quotes from ancient historians and their texts are interspersed throughout the paper. The paper concludes by stating that when examining the society, economy and religious culture of Palmyra, Dura-Europos and Hatra, a distinctive character appears that fits in with their overall identity, despite their comparatively close geographical position to one another.

From the Paper:

"Palmyra was one of the largest towns in the Near East, during the period of Roman contact. It has been suggested that the town sprang up because of a sudden urbanisation of nomads for economic benefits, but it must be stressed that this can only be a theory for now and is not proven. Pliny the Elder, misleadingly, suggests that Palmyra was politically based between the Roman and Parthian empires. Actually, even though Palmyra does have a unique status, it is firmly under Roman influence. This can be shown from the inscription of the tax law that bears the name of the city as 'Hadriana Tadmor', along with other references to Roman governors and Germanicus Caesar. Palmyra even became a colonia, but this did not mean the introduction of Latin to the town, for we find the use of Latin to entirely disappear from this period."

Sample of Sources Used:

  • Beard. M., North. J. and Price. S. 1998. Religions of Rome. Volume 2-A Sourcebook (Cambridge).
  • Burkert. W. 1983. Homo Necans. (Berkeley).
  • Cantineau. J. 1930. Inventaire des Inscriptions de Palmyre III (Beyrouth).
  • Cantineau. J. 1933. Inventaire des Inscriptions de Palmyre IX (Beyrouth).
  • Detienne. M. and Vernant. J-P. 1989. The Cuisine of the Sacrifice Among the Greeks (Chicago).

Cite this Research Paper:

APA Format

Ancient Palmyra, Dura-Europos and Hatra (2011, January 15) Retrieved February 06, 2023, from

MLA Format

"Ancient Palmyra, Dura-Europos and Hatra" 15 January 2011. Web. 06 February. 2023. <>