An in-depth examination of the American and British intervention in the 1953 Iranian coup d'etat that overthrew the democratic government of Iran.
# 152254 | 5,339 words | 12 sources | APA | 2013 |
Published on Jan 18, 2013 in History (Middle Eastern) , International Relations (U.S.) , Middle Eastern Studies (General)
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The paper explores the 1953 coup d'etat that was an American-British covert operation which overthrew the democratic government of Iran in order to gain control over Iran's oil refineries. The paper discusses how the government of Prime Minister Mohammad Mosaddeq was ousted and the Shah was reinstated to power, all with American assistance and intervention. The paper then discusses how in retrospect, the United States sponsored coup has emerged as a critical event in postwar world history; the paper explains that the government of Mosaddeq was the last popular, democratically oriented government to hold office in Iran, and the regime replacing it was a dictatorship that suppressed all forms of popular political activity, producing tensions that contributed greatly to the 1978-1979 Iranian revolution. In addition, the paper notes that the 1953 coup marked the first peacetime use of covert action by the United States to overthrow a foreign government.
From the Paper:"The operation, code-named TP-AJAX, was the proposal for a succession of CIA plots to stimulate coups and destabilize governments during the cold war. Historians say that agency officers who coordinated the Iran coup worked straightforwardly with royalist Iranian military officers. They specially selected the prime minister's replacement, sent a stream of envoys to strengthen the shah's courage, and directed a campaign of bombings by Iranians pretending to be members of the Communist Party along with planting articles and editorial cartoons in newspapers (A Short Account of 1953 Coup, 2010).
"The coup had its roots in a British face-off with Iran, on edge under decades of near-colonial British domination. The reward was Iran's oil fields. Britain occupied Iran in World War II to defend a supply path to its ally, the Soviet Union, and to prevent the oil from falling into the hands of the Nazis, ousting the shah's father, whom it regarded as uncontrollable. It kept power over Iran's oil after the war through the Anglo-Iranian Oil Company. In 1951, Iran's Parliament selected to make public the oil industry, and legislators supporting the law elected its leading backer, Dr. Mosaddeq, as prime minister. Britain answered with threats and sanctions (A Short Account of 1953 Coup, 2010). "Britain, fearful of Iran's plans to nationalize its oil industry, came up with the idea for the coup in 1952 and pressed the United States to mount a joint operation to remove the Prime Minister" (Risen, 2000)."
Sample of Sources Used:
- A Short Account of 1953 Coup. (2010). Retrieved April 16, 2010, from Iran Chamber Society Web site: http://www.iranchamber.com/history/coup53/coup53p1.php
- Gasiorowski, Mark J. and Byrne, Malcolm. (2004). Mohammad Mosaddeq andthe 1953 Coup in Iran. New York: Syracuse University Press.
- Gasiorowski, Mark. (2000). What's New on the Iran 1953 Coup in the New York Times Article (April 16, 2000, front page) and the Documents Posted on the We. Retrieved April 16, 2010, from Web site: http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAEBB/NSAEBB28/
- How the United States Destroyed Democracy in Iran in 1953. (2006). Retrieved April 16, 2010, from Historical and Investigative Research Web site: http://www.hirhome.com/iraniraq/iran-coup.htm
- Risen, James. (2000). Secrets of History: The CIA in Iran. Retrieved April 16, 2010, from The New York Times Web site: http://www.nytimes.com/library/world/mideast/041600iran- cia-index.html
Cite this Research Paper:
America, Britain and the 1953 Iranian Coup D'etat (2013, January 18) Retrieved July 15, 2020, from https://www.academon.com/research-paper/america-britain-and-the-1953-iranian-coup-d-etat-152254/
"America, Britain and the 1953 Iranian Coup D'etat" 18 January 2013. Web. 15 July. 2020. <https://www.academon.com/research-paper/america-britain-and-the-1953-iranian-coup-d-etat-152254/>