This paper discusses nursing theory, specifically in regards to self-care facilitated by Dorothy Orem's model and the mid-range theory of the community health model.
# 105822 | 1,987 words | 11 sources | MLA | 2008 |
Published on Jul 19, 2008 in Medical and Health (Nursing) , Medical and Health (Nutrition and Exercise) , Medical and Health (General) , Nutrition (General)
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This paper discusses the importance of nursing theory as not simply a philosophical abstraction, but as also useful for the demands for "description, explanation, prediction and control" during nursing work and study. Having a background in nursing theories can prove helpful because theories give clues as to what to ask, what to observe, what to focus on and what to think about when a nurse is under pressure or dealing with a noncompliant patient. The paper asserts that even grand theories have a practical emphasis. They can offer validation of the patient's cultural differences and self-empowerment and actualization through facilitating patient self-care. Self-care facilitation is a stress in many of the grand theories, as Orem's theory likewise attempts to address self-care deficits such as patient noncompliance with a dietary or physical fitness regime. There is always inevitable overlap between models, as contemporary nursing models and grand theories all strive to be limited to a focus on problems in nurse-patient situations or problems in person-environment interaction to be of use in practitioners in the field. Furthermore, the paper looks at the use of middle range theories in nursing, which some assert are more useful and more easily tested in practice. These mid-range theories act as subsidiaries of grand theories, and draw a great deal of their philosophy from grand theories. The major categories of knowledge reflected in different contemporary nursing models and grand theories, which include needs-based approaches, interaction-based approaches, outcome-focused approaches and humanistic approaches can be placed through the use of mid-range theories in a very specific context, such as pain management, or health promotion.
From the Paper:"Orem places a strong emphasis on exercise and physical activity that the patient can achieve him or herself. In the Community Empowerment Model, the nurse can provide counseling how to achieve such goals in the context of the patient's specific community and cultural environment (Extract from "Medicare Primary and Consumer Directed Care Demonstration: Health Promotion Nurse Intervention Model," 2002). The importance of exercise is directly derived from Orem's stress upon the need for the nurse to help the patient with such basic self-care modalities as nutrition, hygiene (including better sleep hygiene), mobility (including exercise), medication, and more empowered behavior. Orem also stresses patient empowerment in the context of direct nursing care, where the nurse has direct contact with client and/or family, along with Orem's the belief that self-care deficits are the result of environmental situations (Mayo, 1997).
"The environmental impact upon self-care also illustrates how the Community Empowerment Middle Range theory springs directly from Orem's influence, along with the pragmatic and humanist philosophical influences gave birth to Orem's stress upon patient empowerment during the entire process of treatment. The Community Empowerment Model also incorporates multiculturalism into its philosophy. Both theories share the logical positivist emphasis which stresses situations and context dictating the course of treatment, and the importance of taking into consideration the environment of the patient."
Sample of Sources Used:
- "Extract from: Medicare Primary and Consumer Directed Care Demonstration: Health Promotion Nurse Intervention Model." (12 Nov 2002). The 130th Annual Meeting of APHA. Retrieved on 10 Sept 2007 from Nursing Theory.net at http://www.nursingtheory.net/mr_communityempowerment.html
- Fawcett (2005) Contemporary nursing Knowledge: Analysis and evaluation of nursing models and theories . 2nd Ed. Chapters 4-10:
- Gary, R. (2006 Jan-Feb). "Self-care practices in women with diastolic heart failure." Heart Lung. 35(1):9-19. Retrieved on 10 Sept 2007 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?Db=pubmed&Cmd=ShowDetailView&TermToSearch=16426931&ordinalpos=1&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsPanel.Pubmed_RVAbstractPlus
- Mayo, A.M. (1997). "Orem's Self-Care Model: A Professional Nursing Practice Model Retrieved on 10 Sept 2007 http://members.aol.com/annmrn/nursing_portfolio_I_index.html
- McEwen, Willis. (2007). Theoretical Basis for Nursing. Second Edition. Chapters 6,7,8,9.
Cite this Persuasive Essay:
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