The Rise of Liberalism, Socialism and Nationalism in Europe Essay by JPWrite

The Rise of Liberalism, Socialism and Nationalism in Europe
The writer discusses the rise of the welfare state in Britain, communism in Russia and fascism in Germany.
# 65721 | 1,918 words | 3 sources | MLA | 2006 | US

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The writer shows how liberalism in Britain led to the establishment of a welfare state in the next century, and how in Russia, the idea of socialism proposed by Karl Marx developed into the communism of the 20th century. The writer explains how, in Germany, Johann von Gerder encouraged all the states to recognize, absorb and develop their mutual culture, immersing themselves in the country's language, mythology and literature in order to strengthen national pride, and how this sense of nationalism was heightened after World War I to become the fascism propounded by Adolf Hitler in the period immediately before World War II. In conclusion, the paper shows how these developments led to the aggression that inevitably led to World War II.

Table of Contents:
The Rise of the Welfare State in Britain
Communism in Russia
The Rise of Fascism in Germany

From the Paper:

"European nations in the early 1900s entered into a new age of imperialism, and built up their armies in accordance with their imperialistic goals. Mobilization led to antagonism between the nations, and Germany responded by being the first to attack its neighbor, Russia. The policies of the Welfare State were already firmly entrenched in Britain by the time of the First World War, and the government responded to the pressure to provide for its soldiers and their families by increasing its pensions and entitlements. The war itself was an immense drain on England's finances. Defense expenditures rose from 91 million pounds in 1913 to 1.956 billion in 1918. The enormous casualties of the war added an even bigger burden to the medical expenses and pensions the government was obliged to pay. Britain sold its vast amount of securities to help pay their debt, but in October 1916, the British Chancellor of the Exchequer warned that in less than a year, the President of the "American Republic" would be in a position to dictate terms.
"When the Great Depression hit in the 1930s, it hit an already weakened Britain, and the burden of unemployment insurance was deeply felt. What had started out to be an attempt at ending oppression by the wealthy classes in the 19th century, had become an outright attempt to redistribute the wealth by the early 20th century. Britain supported a massive bureaucracy in order to accommodate the welfare system, and the country was barely able to keep up with its obligations. A disproportionate amount of funds was going into the society with not enough being brought back into it by the recipients of social programs."

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