The Process of Evolution
A discussion on physical and cultural anthropology and the process of evolution.
# 154142 | 1,120 words | 5 sources | 2015
Published on Mar 30, 2015
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From the Paper:"Evolution is a change over time. It is a process that generates a history of relatedness among all living things. Physical anthropology refers to the systematic research of humans as biological organisms. Traditionally, biological anthropologists concentrated on human evolution, primatology, growth and development, human adaptation and forensics. Today, molecular anthropology or the anthropological study of genes and genetic relationships, is another vital component of biological anthropology. Comparisons between groups delineated by time; can reveal how humans have revamped and where they have migrated. As experts in the anatomy of human bones and tissues, physical anthropologists lend their knowledge about the body in applied areas such as gross anatomy laboratories, public health and criminal investigations, (Haviland, 2013).
"Evolution happens on a vast time scale, but evolutionary changes usually start small and on a much shorter scale. Changes get passed from the cells in which they first rise to their descendant cells, in the process of inheritance with memory: what you and your individual cells today depends on their immediate cellular ancestors. It is because inherited control involves the nucleotide-sequential nature of genes. Cellular memory gets encoded by the functional elements in the DNA, and changes in DNA are transmitted to descendant cells.
Organisms, as well as genes, evolve, and an objective of biology is to understand how the functions and diversity of plants, as well as their genes, have evolved. The modern theory of evolution got formulated around genes, on the assumption that traits are due to and made by, genes, even if it is organisms that get born, live and die. If this assumption is right, then the process that change genes also change bodies. But this doesn't suggest that we need to pay particular attention to the relationship between genotypes and phenotypes.
"Among other things, genetic comparisons between human groups can inform us about population movements in the past and what selective pressures may have been exerted to produce some of the variability we see. The ENCODE is a project initially conceived to follow up on the advancing made by the Human Genome Project. This massive study, begun in 2003, now involves an international consortium which, on September 2012, simultaneously published 30 articles in several scientific journals. Initially, the project sets out to catalog the functional DNA sequences contained within the vast stretches of non-protein-coding DNA, determine what they do and examine how the human genome gets regulated, (Maher, 2012)."
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