Planning in Management Essay

Planning in Management
This paper discusses planning, act of formulating a program for a definitive course of action, as an important function of management.
# 64649 | 1,770 words | 5 sources | APA | 2005 | PK
Published on Mar 31, 2006 in Business (Management)

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This paper explains that, to begin its planning, an organization needs (1) to evaluate its readiness and goals by using an analytical study of their recent history, their strengths and weaknesses, (2) to establish a planning committee and (3) to recognize specific issues to be addressed in the planning process. The author points out that some of the most important factors, which serve as barriers to any effective planning, are communication, overall poor skill levels of employees and resistance to change. The paper relates that some of the major external influences in business management, over which an organization has less or no control but nonetheless must be included in the planning process, are the political-legal, economic, natural, socio-cultural, demographic and technological environments.

Table of Contents
Steps in the Planning Process
Barriers to Effective Planning
Ways to Overcome these Barriers
External or Macro-Environment Influences
Internal or Micro-Environment Influences

From the Paper:

"Natural environment covers the areas regarding the natural resources consumed by an organization in the process of production. It also includes raw material shortages which would prove to be a loss for an organization. Increase in pollution levels, energy cost and an increased governmental intervention in the management of natural resource management also fall under the category of natural environment.
Another example of the influence of macro-environment was seen after the 11 September attacks on the World Trade Center. People resisted using air travel as a means to travel. Many airlines went bankrupt while many sat down to formulate new strategies in order to make profits."

Cite this Essay:

APA Format

Planning in Management (2006, March 31) Retrieved May 30, 2023, from

MLA Format

"Planning in Management" 31 March 2006. Web. 30 May. 2023. <>