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This paper explains that ethics are generally based on the field or situation in which a person is involved; morals are personal rules of behavior, which may or may not be relative to the situation, and are based on individually embraced value systems as opposed to overarching cultural or professional norms. The author points out that subjects in medical research should not be lied to, confidentiality is required where offered, long-term harm should be avoided and all research should both be scientifically valid, performed by qualified researchers and within facilities capable of caring for patients. The paper stresses that, only when morality and ethics align can a legitimate code of ethics be created; where moral issues are deeply obscured, creating an ethical code can be extremely difficult as in the case of stem-cell research.
From the Paper:"Of course, quoting the Nuremberg Code seems to imply that unethical human experimentation in only committed by Nazis. This is far from the truth. Both prior to the Third Reich, during its regime, and for decades subsequent to it, unsuspecting, disadvantaged, or prisoner populations in the United States were being used as guinea pigs in horrendous experimentations. Such experiments included infecting people with malaria, injecting or feeding them with radioactive materials, experimenting with psychological trauma in orphaned children, and many more such cruelties. Moreover, it appears that such unethical experiments continue to this day. For example, in a prime example of outsourcing, one Harvard University professor doing genetic research projects on environmental effects on asthma (among other things) recently went into rural china where "free check-ups" were offered to natives who were subsequently sprayed with pesticides and had blood samples taken -- all without informed consent being solicited in their own language."
Cite this Essay:
Ethics (2005, August 15) Retrieved December 09, 2023, from https://www.academon.com/essay/ethics-60275/
"Ethics" 15 August 2005. Web. 09 December. 2023. <https://www.academon.com/essay/ethics-60275/>