Congestive Heart Failure (CHF) Essay by ABCs

Congestive Heart Failure (CHF)
Discusses the relationship of depression to congestive heart failure (CHF) .
# 111999 | 805 words | 3 sources | APA | 2009 | US

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This paper discusses how nonadherence to treatment regimens due to depression is the most well-documented mechanism by which depression produces adverse outcomes in coronary artery disease. The paper then explains what is meant by congestive heart failure (CHF). Next, the paper sites research into cytokines in terms of understanding disease and brain-body integration and interaction in depression and heart failure.

From the Paper:

"It is reported that cytokines impact upon the nervous and endocrine system effectively shut the circuit between the immune system and brain giving rise to the indication that neural-immune interactions are bidirectional. IL-1 and IL-6 exert potent enhancing effects on the HPA axis by stimulating hypothalamic corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), which is capable of activating the neuroendocrine cascade, resulting in increased pituitary adrenocorticotropic hormone and glucocorticoid release."

Sample of Sources Used:

  • Koenig,H., Vandermeer,J., Chambers,A., Burr Critchfield,L., & Johnson, J. (2006).The comparison of major and minor depression in older medical inpatients with chronic heart and pulmonary disease. Psychosomatics, 47:4 July-August. Online available at:
  • Pasic, J., Levy, Wayne, & Sullivan, M. (2003). Cytokines in Depression and Heart Failure. Psychosomatic Medicine 65:181-193.
  • Jiang, Wei, et al (2001) Relationship of Depression to Increased Risk of Mortality and Rehospitalization in Patients with Congestive Heart Failure. Archives of Internal Medicine Vol. 161, No. 15, 13 Aug 2001.

Cite this Essay:

APA Format

Congestive Heart Failure (CHF) (2009, February 08) Retrieved December 03, 2021, from

MLA Format

"Congestive Heart Failure (CHF)" 08 February 2009. Web. 03 December. 2021. <>