Impact of Polio Campaigns in Bihar Dissertation or Thesis by munnu

Presents original research that evaluates the efficacy of the Pulse Polio Campaigns in eradicating the polio virus in Bihar, India.
# 149805 | 9,550 words | 19 sources | MLA | 2010 | IN

$19.95 Buy and instantly download this paper now


This paper explains that, in spite of so many Pulse Polio Campaigns in Bihar, India, the polio virus has not been eradicated; however, when integrated with other state interventions like routine immunization, a faster eradication of polio disease might be achieved. After the literature review, the author describes the econometric methodology for this study, which uses both time series and cross sectional analysis. The paper concludes that the research indeed does indicate that, while the Pulse polio campaigns need to be continued, the emphasis of the state government should be more on the coverage of routine immunization. Maps, equations, figures and statistical tables are included in the paper.

Table of Contents:
Table of Contents
Need for Study
Literature Review
The Linkage between Polio and Routine Immunization
The Vaccine Derived Virus - Risk of Over Exposure
Lack of Logistic Support for Polio Campaigns
Polio and Hygiene & Sanitation - A Case for IPV
Problems of Full Immunization - Surveillance and Record
Immunization and Local Resistance - Role of Media
Oral Polio Vaccine and AIDS
Polio Vaccination Post Eradication
Data and Methodology
Time Series Model
Cross Sectional Model
Endogeneity of the Variables
Dummy Variables
Data Source
Expected Outcome
Findings from the Time Series Data
Findings from the Cross Section Data
District Level Cross Sectional Analysis
The Pulse Polio Campaigns
Full immunization
Supervision of Polio Campaigns
Population and Migration
Other Institutional Factors
Block Level Cross Sectional Analysis
Conclusion and Policy Recommendations

From the Paper:

"The above argument was further reinforced when the dummy variable analysis of this variable was undertaken. While the coefficient of dummy came significant at 30% (meaning when every district has achieved an RI coverage of more than 30%), the variable fullimmunhat itself became insignificant. However, when the dummy was raised to 38% the variable immunhat gained significance at 18% with dummy also coming significantly negative. There are no districts beyond 40% RI coverage (except Bhagalpur) thus further dummy analysis could not be undertaken. This however points out that if there is a threshold for RI coverage , it is roughly around 40-42% .This means that the state should quickly achieve a Routine Immunization coverage of average 40% from the present average level of 23.4% in all districts ( particularly the polio prone districts ) if it has to eradicate polio menace.
"It is worth mentioning that the RI coverage pre-existed the Pulse Polio Campaigns and it will certainly outlast them. Fighting Polio before fighting DPT and Measles would have made sense if our general RI coverage was handsome (say > 80). This is our major policy fallacy that we never thought of integrating the polio campaigns with the RI coverage."

Sample of Sources Used:

  • Technical Consultative Group to the WHO on the Global Eradication of Poliomyelitis- "Endgame" Issues for the Global Polio Eradication Initiative. Source: Clinical Infectious Diseases, Vol. 34, No. 1 (Jan. 1, 2002), pp. 72-77 .Published by: The University of Chicago Press.2002.
  • Miguel A. Galindo Sardiinas Andres Zambrano Cardenas, Gisele Coutin Marie, Manuel Santin Penia, Miriam Aliino Santiago, Marlen Valcarce Sanchez & C.P. Farrington -Lack of Association between Intussusception and Oral Polio Vaccine in Cuban Children .Source: European Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 17, No. 8 (2001), pp. 783-787. Published by: Springer.
  • Manu N. Kulkarni - How Useful Is Pulse Strategy for Polio Eradication? Source: Economic and Political Weekly, Vol. 32, No. 11 (Mar. 15-21, 1997), pp. 520-521 Published by: Economic and Political Weekly.
  • Hilary Koprowski - Hypotheses and Facts: Source: Philosophical Transactions: Biological Sciences, Vol. 356, No. 1410, Origins of HIV and the AIDS Epidemic (Jun. 29, 2001), pp. 831-833 Published by: The Royal Society
  • Alan W. Dove and Vincent R. Racaniello - The Polio Eradication Effort: Should Vaccine Eradication Be Next .Science, New Series, Vol. 277, No. 5327 (Aug. 8, 1997), pp. 779-780. Published by: American Association for the Advancement of Science.(1997)

Cite this Dissertation or Thesis:

APA Format

Impact of Polio Campaigns in Bihar (2012, January 01) Retrieved March 04, 2021, from

MLA Format

"Impact of Polio Campaigns in Bihar" 01 January 2012. Web. 04 March. 2021. <>