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This paper relates that epidemiology studies can be classified as either observational or experimental. The paper then lists the types of studies that make up observational studies as well as the types of studies that make up experimental studies. The paper then goes on to describe the most common types of studies used in epidemiological studies such as cross-sectional studies, cohort studies and case-control studies.
From the Paper:"Cross-sectional studies are typically descriptive, and because they are quick and cost efficient, are used to measure the prevalence of a disease and assess the health of populations. They are used in studying rare exposures and rare diseases as it is convenient for measuring several exposures at once for trying to find the association between the risk factor and disease outcome. A cross-sectional study begins by choosing individuals to participate and then collecting data from primary sources, such as surveys, or secondary sources, such as medical records. When measuring risk factor and disease outcome, it is never easy to find "possible causative association" because exposure and effect are measured at the same time. It is for this reason that it remains unknown to whether disease or exposure came first and so an association between the both may remain uncertain. Also bias can occur which can alter the true values. "
Sample of Sources Used:
- Beaglehole, R. Bonita, R & Kjellstrom, T. (2005)Basic epidemiology: chapter 5. World Health Organisation
- Friis, R.H. & Sellers, T.A (2004) Epidemiology for Public Health Practice: Chapter 6 and chapter 7. Table of comparisons of observational study (Back of book). Jones and Bartlett Publishers.
Cite this Descriptive Essay:
Epidemiological Studies (2010, January 14) Retrieved December 04, 2023, from https://www.academon.com/descriptive-essay/epidemiological-studies-118222/
"Epidemiological Studies" 14 January 2010. Web. 04 December. 2023. <https://www.academon.com/descriptive-essay/epidemiological-studies-118222/>