Androgyny in Hemingway's Fiction Book Review by dixiehead

Androgyny in Hemingway's Fiction
An analysis of issues of gender-bending and androgyny in several of Earnest Hemingway's works.
# 91852 | 3,118 words | 7 sources | MLA | 2007 | US
Published on Feb 07, 2007 in Literature (American) , English (Analysis)

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This paper discusses how Hemingway can be considered a "man's writer who writes for men in an attempt to define men- real men, ideal men and manly men. It attempts to define Hemingway's man through an examination of some of his characters: Jake Barnes in "The Sun Also Rises Francis Macomber", Wilson in "The Short Happy Life of Francis Macomber" and finally Robert Jordan in "For Whom the Bell Tolls". It concludes that by considering these characters, Hemingway's perception of gender seems to be strictly binary.

From the Paper:

"Perhaps Hemingway sets out not to establish a code for that which he considers manly, but rather identify what society has already designated as manly. Subsequently, perhaps Hemingway has a certain amount of empathy for those of his protagonists who are ultimately foiled by these impossible standards. So what is a man supposed to be? Michael Leland describes "the story [as] familiar by now: the Hemingway hero loses some version of his maleness to the first World War, and he replaces it with a tool -- in Upper Michigan, a fishing rod or pocketknife; in Africa, a hunting rifle" - which is of course, a gross oversimplification but nevertheless a humorous take on what characteristics shape his protagonists. "

Sample of Sources Used:

  • Eby, Carl P. Hemingway's Fetishism: Psychoanalysis and the Mirror of Manhood. New York: State University of New York Press, 1999.
  • Forter, Greg. "Melancholy Modernism: Gender and the Politics of Mourning in The Sun Also Rises." Hemingway Review Fall (2001): 22-35. Harris, Susan. "Vicious Binaries: Gender and Authorial Paranoia in Dreiser's 'Second Choice,' Howells' 'Editha,' and Hemingway's 'The Short Happy Life of Francis Macomber'." College Literature 20 (1991): 70-82. Hemingway, Ernest. For Whom the Bell Tolls. New York: Scribner, 1940. ---. The Sun Also Rises. New York: Scribner, 1926. ---. Islands in the Stream. New York: Scribner, 1970. ---. The Garden of Eden. New York: Scribner, 1986. ---. "The Short Happy Life of Francis Macomber." The Complete Short Stories of Ernest Hemingway. New York: Scribner, 1987.
  • Kennedy, J. Gerald. "Hemingway's Gender Trouble." American Literature: A Journal of Literary History, Criticism, and Bibliography 63 (1991): 187-207.
  • Leland, Jacob Michael. "Yes, That is a Roll of Bills in My Pocket: The Economy of Masculinity in The Sun Also Rises." The Hemingway Review Spring (2004): 37-46.
  • Seydow, John J. "Francis Macomber's Spurious Masculinity." The Hemingway Review Fall (1981): 33-41.

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