Type 1 Diabetes Analytical Essay by Nicky

Type 1 Diabetes
Looks at the cause and management of type 1 diabetes.
# 149212 | 950 words | 11 sources | APA | 2011 | US
Published on Nov 29, 2011 in Biology (Biotechnology) , Medical and Health (General)

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This paper explains that type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disorder marked by the degeneration of islet of Langerhans resulting in the inhibition of insulin synthesis or can be a rare form called idiopathic type 1 with no known cause. Next, the author reports that the causes of type 1 diabetes seem to be related to HLA class II genes, which indicates a possible genetic predisposition, to infant nutrition and to enteroviruses, which are known to damage the pancreatic islet cells. The paper concludes that today the management of type 1 diabetes is through insulin therapy and immunosuppressive treatment; however, the development of recombinant synthesis of insulin and genetically modified probiotics suggests the potential for therapies, which actually regenerate the body's natural insulin production system.

Table of Contents:
Type 1 Diabetes
Genetics of Type 1Diabetes
Environmental Risk Factors
Diabetes Treatment -New Developments

From the Paper:

"Daily intake of insulin through injections or orally constitutes the main therapeutic approach. However, advancements in pharmacogenetics promises new and better ways of managing diabetes. Studies have shown that Lisofylline, an anti inflammatory compound is very effective in suppressing the autoimmune activity and in improving the islet secretion of insulin. Mice studies showed significant difference (25% vs. 91.6%) in the onset of diabetes among Lisofylline treated mice compared to placebo mice. Reduction of inflammatory cytokines IFN- and TNF- levels correlated with reduction in sz cell apoptosis. Recent study by Lipsett et.al (2007) has shown that Islet Neogenesis-Associated Protein (INGAP) is useful as a pancreatic regeneration agent. Successful tests in mice and regeneration of cultured human pancreatic cells have encouraged the researchers to seriously consider INGAP as an effective agent for improving insulin synthesis.
"A recent Cornell University study focused on an entirely different approach to diabetes management. The researchers examined the possibility of recombinant Commensal bacteria engineered to secrete insulinotropic proteins GLP-1 and PDX-1. The study revealed that the GLP-1 and PDX-1 proteins secreted in the gut bacteria were able to stimulate the intestinal epithelial cells to secrete insulin in response to glucose. This method has the added advantage that commensal bacteria are well tolerated and therefore cause no adverse reactions."

Sample of Sources Used:

  • George S Eisenbarth, (2007) 'Update in Type 1 Diabetes', The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism Vol. 92, No.7. http://jcem.endojournals.org/cgi/content/full/92/7/2403
  • McGill University, 'Deficient Regulators in the Immune System Responsible for Type 1 Diabetes', Updated 25 Jan 2008, Available at, http://www.sciencecentric.com/news/article.php?q=08012539
  • Kent SC, Chen Y, & Bregoli L et.al (2005) 'Expanded T cells from pancreatic lymph nodes of type 1 diabetic subjects recognize an insulin epitope'. Nature 435:224-228
  • Mathieu C, Gysemans C et.al (Jul 2005), 'Vitamin D and Diabetes', Diabetologia. 48(7):1247-57
  • WHO, 'Genetics and Diabetes', Accessed 24th Jun 2009, Available at, http://www.who.int/genomics/about/Diabetis-fin.pdf

Cite this Analytical Essay:

APA Format

Type 1 Diabetes (2011, November 29) Retrieved May 23, 2022, from https://www.academon.com/analytical-essay/type-1-diabetes-149212/

MLA Format

"Type 1 Diabetes" 29 November 2011. Web. 23 May. 2022. <https://www.academon.com/analytical-essay/type-1-diabetes-149212/>