Stem Cell Treatment of Ischemia Analytical Essay

This paper looks at stem cell treatment of ischemia and infarcted tissue and "old" or "new" types of stem cells.
# 146085 | 3,129 words | 19 sources | MLA | 2010


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Description:

In this article, the writer discusses that induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are a recently developed and promising new strategy for patient-specific therapy in a variety of diseases including ischemia and heart infarction. The writer notes that initially, reprogramming of terminally differentiated fibroblasts was managed employing a set of retrovirus-delivered transcription factors. However, this technique is not viable for therapeutic applications. Hence, alternative strategies for iPSC generation were developed, including adenovirus and polycistronic vector-based techniques, transposons, recombinant proteins and small molecule compounds. The writer points out that to date, however, functional cardiomyocytes had been generated using iPSCs reprogrammed exclusively by classical retroviral approach, which was successfully demonstrated in multiple studies both on murine and human iPSCs. This paper contains figures and graphs.

Outline:
Summary
Introduction
Generation of IPS Cells
Differentiation of IPSC's into Cardiomyocytes
Conclusions

From the Paper:

"Most of the studies analyzed managed to meet the criteria for iPSC evaluation, i.e. the gene expression pattern and surface markers are similar to those of ESCs, iPSCs are able to induce teratoma formation in immunodeficient mice with representatives from all three germ layers and make chimeras when injected into blastocysts. This indicates that pluripotency can be induced by a variety of approaches. However, there are several issues that need to be carefully assessed. Experimental data indicate that replacement of integrating vectors by, e.g, adenoviruses or plasmids leads to "Most of the studies analyzed managed to meet the criteria for iPSC evaluation, i.e. the gene expression pattern and surface markers are similar to those of ESCs, iPSCs are able to induce teratoma formation in immunodeficient mice with representatives from all three germ layers and make chimeras when injected into blastocysts. This indicates that pluripotency can be induced by a variety of approaches. However, there are several issues that need to be carefully assessed. Experimental data indicate that replacement of integrating vectors by, e.g, adenoviruses or plasmids leads to subsequent decrease in induction efficiency. This is due to insufficient expression of reprogramming factors during cell proliferation - it is more complicated to maintain non-integrated genetic elements in actively dividing cells. The cell types used for reprogramming must also be taken into account. Most experiments are performed with mouse embryonic fibroblasts. However, applications of the particular protocols to human cells, moreover, to adult human cells, may be problematic as it has been shown that human cells are more difficult to reprogram in comparison with murine cells (4). So a certain part of current efforts may turn out to be nonviable in attempts to create human iPSCs. In my opinion, the most attractive approach is piggyBac transposon-based reprogramming which ensures high induction efficiency due to stable integration into the host genome, besides vector is subsequently excised without leaving any "fingerprints". Another possibility is iPSC induction by recombinant proteins. This approach completely avoids the risk of insertional mutagenesis and eliminates the need to screen the cells for possible background integrations. However, it may not be as effective as transposon-based method because proteins are not maintained in the cells and need to be delivered repeatedly."

Sample of Sources Used:

  • Laflemme M.A., Zbinden S., Epstein S.E., Murry C.E. Cell-based therapy for myocardial ischemia and infarction: pathophysiological mechanisms. Annual Review of Pathology: Mechanisms of Disease 2007; 2:307-339
  • Drexler H., Woller K.C. Bone marrow cell therapy for MI - goal achieved? Nature Reviews Cardiology 2009; 6:615-616
  • Takahashi H., Yamanaka S. Induction of pluripotent stem cells from mouse embryonic and adult fibroblast cultures by defined factors Cell 2006; 126:663-676
  • Takahashi H., Tanabe K., Ohnuki M., Narita M., Ichisaka T., Tomoda K., Yamanaka S. Induction of pluripotent stem cells from adult human fibroblasts by defined factors -Cell 2007; 131:861-872
  • Stadfeld M., Nagaya M., Utikal J., Weir G., Hochedlinger K. Induced pluripotent stem cells generated witout viral integration Science 322:945-949

Cite this Analytical Essay:

APA Format

Stem Cell Treatment of Ischemia (2010, December 15) Retrieved December 11, 2019, from https://www.academon.com/analytical-essay/stem-cell-treatment-of-ischemia-146085/

MLA Format

"Stem Cell Treatment of Ischemia" 15 December 2010. Web. 11 December. 2019. <https://www.academon.com/analytical-essay/stem-cell-treatment-of-ischemia-146085/>

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