Offshore Wind Farms and Marine Mammals Analytical Essay by Sdressel

An analysis of the effects of noise pollution from offshore wind farms on marine mammals.
# 146559 | 2,188 words | 12 sources | APA | 2010 | US

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The paper explains how the noise pollution that results from wind power can negatively affect marine mammals. The paper suggests several solutions to reduce the noise emitted by offshore wind turbines, including modifying the piling hammer,
placing an air bubble ring around the pile, placing pile sleeves around the pile, using floating turbines and not constructing wind turbines during sensitive times. The paper critiques these solutions and shows how main detriment is the cost involved.

Statement of Problem
Biological Background
Description of Problem
Proposed Solutions
Critique of Proposed Solutions

From the Paper:

"At the end of the last century and throughout this century there has been increased interest in renewable and sustainable energy sources. After the two oil crises in the 1970s, renewable energy sources started to gain interest worldwide which included wind energy (Sahin 2004). Global warming is another problem related to energy production. Nearly fifty percent of carbon dioxide sources related to global warming are energy related. Wind energy produces minimal levels of carbon dioxide (Sahin 2004). International policies, starting with the Stockholm conference in 1972, which led to the development of the UN Environment Program, continually stress the importance of renewable sustainable energy. In the Kyoto Protocol of 1997, committed countries agreed to reduce their emissions by a certain percentage each by 2010 (Sahin 2004). Many of those countries use wind energy to help achieve those goals. The wind energy in place worldwide saves approximately fifty million tons of carbon dioxide from entering the atmosphere per year (Sahin 2004). Currently the countries with the most offshore wind farms are located on the North and Baltic Seas."

Sample of Sources Used:

  • Bailey, J., Senior, B., Simmons, D., Rusin, J., Picken, G., & Thompson, P. (2010). Assessing underwater noise levels during pile-driving at an offshore windfarm and its potential effects on marine mammals. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 60, 888-897.
  • Breton, SP, & Moe, G. (2009). Status, plans and technologies for offshore wind turbines in Europe and North America. Renewable Energy, 34, 646-654.
  • Development of the Cost of Offshore Wind Power up to 2015. (2008). Retrieved September 30, 2009, from 2-offshore-developments/development-of-the-cost-of-offshore-wind-power-up-to- 2015.html
  • Elmer, K.H., Gerash, W.J., Neumann, T., Gabriel, J., Betke, K. & Schultz-von Glahn, M. (2006, November 22). Measurement and reduction of offshore wind turbine construction noise. DEWEK 2006 Conference Bremen. Retrieved September 21, 2010 from
  • Elmer, K., Gerasch, W., Newmann, T., Gabriel, J., & Betke, K. (2007, February). Measurement and reduction of offshore wind turbine construction noise. DEWI Magazine 30, 33-39.

Cite this Analytical Essay:

APA Format

Offshore Wind Farms and Marine Mammals (2011, January 04) Retrieved August 08, 2022, from

MLA Format

"Offshore Wind Farms and Marine Mammals" 04 January 2011. Web. 08 August. 2022. <>