Gender Issues and Sen's Development as Freedom Analytical Essay by Brij

Gender Issues and Sen's Development as Freedom
Presents an empirical analysis of gender issues as presented in Amartya Sen's theory of development as freedom based on statistics reported in the 2012 World Development Report
# 149040 | 4,780 words | 5 sources | APA | 2011 | IN
Published on Nov 21, 2011 in Sociology (Theory) , Women Studies (General) , Research Designs (General)

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This paper looks at issues affecting gender-related development by evaluating various indices created to measure gender inequality in development across countries and attempts to find a common denominator. Next, the author performs several descriptive and ANOVA statistical analysis across high income and low income countries. The paper concludes that Gender-Related Development Index (GDI) and the Gender Empowerment Measure (GEM) are much better measures of gender inequality and yield new insights on gender gaps in well-being and empowerment in the world. The paper includes many charts, tables, and a formula.

Table of Contents:
Child Mortality below 5 Years of Age
GNI (PPP) per Capita
GNI per Capita on Enrolment Ratio of Females to Males in Primary and Secondary Educations
Education Enrolments Correlated to below 5-Years and Maternal Mortality
Gender-Sensitive Measures of human development (GDI), GGI (Gender Gap Index) and GII (Gender Inequality Index)
Global Gender Gap Index (GGI).
GGI and Labour Force Participation in Service Sector
Gender Inequality Index (GII)
GII and Health Indicator
GII and Empowerment Variable
GII and Women's Participation in Work Force
Limitations of Various Gender-related Indices and Policy Implications

From the Paper:

"Since 1990, UNDP based loosely on Sen's CA, developed a suite of measures which capture key capabilities, particularly health and longevity, education, as well as access to nutrition, shelter, clothing and related capabilities. The HDI (Human Development Index) captures this using a standardized index for life expectancy, literacy and enrolment, and a logarithmic transformation of per capita incomes.
"In 1995, the Gender-Related Development Index (GDI) and the Gender Empowerment Measure (GEM) were added to capture the gender dimensions of human development. In 1996, two Human Poverty Measures were introduced, to capture poverty in developing and industrialized countries respectively. While HDI has been very successful in academic and policy circles, GDI and GEM have not been as successful in capturing the gender dimensions of human development. Sen insists that mortality does not correlate with income (which is welfarists' informational basis) and thus income cannot be used as a proxy for quality of life.
"The World Development Report, 2012 has expressly concluded with examples of various countries, Low-income as well as Medium and High income countries, that overall there has been an improvement in the mortality rate of women and children below 5 years of age. Regarding life expectancy it specifically mentions that "since 1980, women are living longer than men in all parts of the world.""

Sample of Sources Used:

  • Gasper, D (2006) 'What is the capability approach?: its core, rationale, partners and dangers?' in Institute of Social Studies working papers, No.428, The Hague: Institute of Social Studies.
  • Nussbaum, M. (2000) Women and human development: the capabilities approach. Cambridge: CUP.
  • Stephan Klasen, Dana Schuler (April 2009) "Reforming the Gender-Related Development Index (GDI) and the Gender Empowerment Measure (GEM): Some Specific Proposals.
  • World Development Report, 2012.
  • UNESCO (United Nations Economic, Scientific and Cultural Organization) "Institute for Statistics Data Centre." accessed on 21 September, 2011.

Cite this Analytical Essay:

APA Format

Gender Issues and Sen's Development as Freedom (2011, November 21) Retrieved March 04, 2024, from

MLA Format

"Gender Issues and Sen's Development as Freedom" 21 November 2011. Web. 04 March. 2024. <>