Foreign Relations of the Tang Dynasty Analytical Essay by Master Researcher

Foreign Relations of the Tang Dynasty
An analysis of the foreign relations policy of the Tang Dynasty.
# 36557 | 1,900 words | 9 sources | MLA | 2002 | US
Published on Oct 12, 2003 in History (Asian) , International Relations (Non-U.S.) , Asian Studies (General)

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This paper presents an analysis of the foreign relations of the Tang Dynasty in light of China's historical legacy of isolationism and ambivalence about opening up to the outside world. The paper shows that in ancient Chinese imperial times, the foreign relations of the Tang dynasty were said to be of the most cosmopolitan in nature, and, the unification efforts of the Tang era created a great empire that became not only a geopolitical center, but also a cultural center. The paper also notes that the Tang culture eliminated the traditional ethnic boundary between the Han and non-Han.

From the Paper:

"Because the Chinese emperor was considered the ruler of all mankind by virtue of his innate superiority, relations with other states or entities were tributary, rather than state-to-state relations between equals. Traditionally, there was no equivalent of a foreign ministry; foreign relations included such activities as tributary missions to the emperor made by countries seeking trade with China and Chinese military expeditions against neighboring barbarians to keep them outside China's borders.
"The first Europeans who sought trade with China, beginning in the sixteenth century, were received as tributary missions and had to conform to the formalities and rituals of the tribute system at the Chinese court. China's view of itself as the undisputed center of civilization-a phenomenon called sinocentrism-remained basically unchanged until the nineteenth century, when the Qing dynasty began to deteriorate under Western pressure."

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APA Format

Foreign Relations of the Tang Dynasty (2003, October 12) Retrieved April 23, 2021, from

MLA Format

"Foreign Relations of the Tang Dynasty" 12 October 2003. Web. 23 April. 2021. <>