Looks at the effectiveness of several control methods for the Japanese beetle especially Bt biological pesticide.
# 150781 | 1,565 words | 14 sources | APA | 2010 |
Published on Apr 22, 2012 in Biology (Biotechnology) , Agricultural Studies (Biotechnology) , Environmental Studies (Environmental Problems)
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This paper evaluates the extent of infestation, life cycle and control methods against popillia japonica, better known as the Japanese beetle, which is scourging nurseries, golf courses and domestic lawns in America. Next, the author analyzes the negative economical and environmental impacts caused by this Japanese beetle. The paper investigates the effectiveness of the use of genetically modified plants producing the protein-toxin Bt in combating the spread of the Japanese beetle and of other bio-control methods including the milky spore disease (Bacillus popilae) to combat this ecological problem, which might be more effective.
From the Paper:"Bacillus thuringiensis, a species of bacteria first identified in 1911, and subsequently put to use in agriculture in the 1920's, is a spore producing bacterium from the family of Bacillus cerus that synthesizes crystal toxins potentially fatal to a number of insect species considered pests. At first, the insecticide was not popular among agricultural operators, due to the fact that it was not resistant to degradation by factors such as ultraviolet radiation and water. Furthermore, only a limited number of Bt types were known, which in turn limited its lethality to a variety of insects, whereas chemical pesticides were exceptionally effective. It was, however, preferred by organic farmers until the 1970-1980's, when the environmental and health hazards posed by synthetic insecticides such as DDT became widely acknowledged by scientists, environmentalists and the public alike. At the same time, scientific knowledge about genetics increased dramatically with events such as the formation of the Watson - Crick Model of DNA in 1953, along with further developments that gave rise to the field of genetic engineering. In the 1980's, disciplines such as biotechnology advanced the practice of selectively breeding plants to produce hybrids with desirable traits by a great extent: Scientists were now able to identify beneficial genes, isolate them, and incorporate them into other genetic code; thusly were genetically modified organisms (GMO's) created."
Sample of Sources Used:
- Bacillus thuringiensis. (2005). University of California, San Diego. Retrieved from http://www.bt.ucsd.edu/overview.html
- Broderick, N. A. (2006, October 10). Midgut bacteria required for Bacillus thuringiensis insecticidal activity. In Departments of *Entomology and Plant Pathology and ‡Microbiology Doctoral Training Program, University of Wisconsin. Retrieved from http://www.pnas.org/content/103/41/15196.full.pdf+html
- Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis), A Microbial Insecticide. (2001, April). University of Florida. Retrieved February 28, 2010, from http://miami-dade.ifas.ufl.edu/pdfs/fyn/bt.pdf
- Control of Japanese Beetle with Parasites. (2010). Ohio State University (sustainable suppression of japanese beetles). Retrieved from http://www.oardc.ohio-state.edu/biocontrol/j_beetle.htm
- Frank, S. D. (2009). Ornamentals and Turf. In North Carolina State University (japanese beetle). Retrieved from http://www.ces.ncsu.edu/depts/ent/notes/Ornamentals_and_Turf/flowers/note44/note44.html
Cite this Analytical Essay:
Combating the Spread of the Japanese Beetle (2012, April 22) Retrieved July 13, 2020, from https://www.academon.com/analytical-essay/combating-the-spread-of-the-japanese-beetle-150781/
"Combating the Spread of the Japanese Beetle" 22 April 2012. Web. 13 July. 2020. <https://www.academon.com/analytical-essay/combating-the-spread-of-the-japanese-beetle-150781/>