Cardiovascular Disease Analytical Essay by professor71

Cardiovascular Disease
This paper examines psychological influences that can be a contributing factor to cardiovascular disease
# 113514 | 2,420 words | 26 sources | APA | 2009 | IN

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This essay examines the psychological characteristics and psychosocial factors associated with, or causative of, cardiovascular disease. The essay also addresses some models like the cardio reactivity model, psychoneuroimmunology, the role of the sympathetic nervous system in cardiovascular disease, and the HPA axis. The association of certain psychosocial risk factors such as depression leading to medical non-compliance is also dealt with.

Psychological Factors Associated With or Causative of Cardiovascular Disease
Psychosocial Factors
Cardio Reactivity Model
The Involvement of the Sympathetic Nervous System
The HPA Axis
Association of Psychosocial Risk Factors with Certain Health Behaviors

From the Paper:

"Psychological risk factors for coronary syndromes belong to three categories. These include: chronic, episodic, and acute psychological risk factors (Kop, 1999). Chronic psychological risk factors (like hostility) lead to a gradual progression of coronary artery disease. The temporal relation to coronary syndrome is 10 years and the associated cardiovascular risks include hyperlipidemia, hypertension, and increased sympathetic activation. The pathophysiology involves sympathetic activity and elevated lipids. The primary pathological result is atherosclerosis (Kop, 1999).
"Psychological risk factors, which occur episodically (like exhaustion) have a duration, which lasts from few months to two years and can occur again. The temporal relation to coronary syndrome is 2 years and the associated cardiovascular risks include increased blood clotting and inflammation, and a shift of sympatho-vagal balance. The pathophysiology involves sympatho-vagal imbalance, neurohormonal changes, and a procoagulant state. The primary pathological result is altered homeostasis (Kop, 1999)."

Sample of Sources Used:

  • Ader, R, 2007. Psychoneuroimmunology. Academic Press.
  • Barth, J, Schumacher, M, Herrmann-Lingen, C, 2004. Depression as a Risk Factor for Mortality in Patients With Coronary Heart Disease: A Meta-analysis. Psychosomatic Medicine 66:802-813.
  • Cohn, JN, 1989. Sympathetic nervous system activity and the heart. Am J Hypertens.
  • Carroll, D, Hewitt, JK, Last, KA, Turner, JR, Sims, J, 1985. A twin study of cardiac reactivity and its relationship to parental blood pressure. Physiology & Behavior. 34 (1).
  • Dimsdale, JE, 2008. Psychological Stress and Cardiovascular Disease. Journal of the American College of Cardiology. 51 (13).

Cite this Analytical Essay:

APA Format

Cardiovascular Disease (2009, April 16) Retrieved May 24, 2022, from

MLA Format

"Cardiovascular Disease" 16 April 2009. Web. 24 May. 2022. <>