9/11 Intelligence Failures
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This paper reviews the events leading up to September 11, and what the Central Intelligence Agency, Federal Bureau of Investigation and the National Security Agency knew prior to the attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon. This paper also talks about the findings of the 9/11 Commission Board and its recommendations for improving the security of our nation intelligence agencies. Furthermore, this paper also discusses whether or not intelligence failure is inevitable.
From the Paper:"During the spring and summer of 2001, there was a significant increase in the number of reports of al Qaida activity, indicating a strike against the U.S. and possibly a prestige target within America itself (Wilson, 2004). Furthermore, evidence began to accumulate in both CIA and FBI files, reporting that terrorists were still contemplating using airliners as flying bombs. The NSA, which is responsible for intercepting electronic communication, intercepted multiple phone conversation from al Qaida operatives (2004). For example, in early 1999, the NSA intercepted the name of Nawaf al Hamzi as a likely al Qaida hijacker (2004). The NSA filed the information, but apparently did not pass it on to the FBI or the CIA (2004). The NSA Director as that time, Michael Hayden, admitted that his agency had decoded no less than thirty-three warnings of an al Qaida attack between May and July 2001, but failed to pass them on for action (2004)"
Sample of Sources Used:
- Berntsen G. (2008). Human intelligence counterterrorism & national leadership: A practical guide. Potomac Books Inc. Virginia
- Gertz, B. (2002). How America's intelligence failures led to September 11. Regnery Publishing Inc. Washington D.C.
- Johnson, L. and James W. (2007). Intelligence and national security: The secret world of spies: An anthology (2nd Edition). New York: Oxford University Press.
- Kean, T. Report on the status of 9/11 commission recommendations Part II: Reforming the institutions of government October 2005. Retrieved on March 30, 2009 from http://www.9-11pdp.org/press/2005-10-20_report.pdf
- Mazzetti, M. Report faults U.S. spy agencies. New York Times Retrieved on April 1, 2009 from:http://www.nytimes.com/2009/04/02/us/politics/02intel.html?_r=2&ref=us
Cite this Analytical Essay:
9/11 Intelligence Failures (2011, August 30) Retrieved July 02, 2022, from https://www.academon.com/analytical-essay/9-11-intelligence-failures-148089/
"9/11 Intelligence Failures" 30 August 2011. Web. 02 July. 2022. <https://www.academon.com/analytical-essay/9-11-intelligence-failures-148089/>