Peer Pressure Cause and Effect Essay by ashmichelle

Peer Pressure
This paper examines research on peer pressure and its effects on conformity.
# 113902 | 2,078 words | 9 sources | APA | 2009 | AU

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The paper explores the issue of peer pressure in today's society and how it can have both a negative and positive effect on peers. The paper looks at studies that explore the link between peer pressure and body image, product consumption, drinking alcohol and smoking.

How Peer Pressure Transpires
When and Why Does Negative Conformity and Peer Pressure Occur?
The Positive Role of Peer Pressure in Conforming

From the Paper:

"According to Burton, Weston & Kowalski (2009), conformity refers to the altering of "attitudes or behaviour to accommodate the standards of peers or groups". This behaviour is seen more in children & adolescents during the school years than in any other life stages. The fear of being excluded, and ultimately having to cope with educational and social pressure single-handedly, instils a more negative approach to choices concerning right and wrong.
"Peer pressure is an influential attitude or perception, which is best described by Manohar (2009); " is the pressure exerted by a peer group in encouraging someone to change their attitudes, behaviour, or morals, to fit in a group."
"Peer pressure and conformity can work in a harmonious relationship, provided that both are applied using a positive approach. In contrast, they can also share a discordant affiliation if both conformity and peer-pressure are used inappropriately. For example, a group pressuring a child to steal some money involves both negative peer pressure and consequently ends with a negative conformity."

Sample of Sources Used:

  • Elliot, R, Leonard, C 2004, 'Peer Pressure and Poverty: Exploring fashion brands and consumption symbolism among children of the British Poor', Journal of Consumer Behaviour, vol. 3, no.4, pp.347-359
  • Jones, D, Vigfusdottir, T & Lee, Y 2004, 'Body Image and the Appearance Culture among Adolescent Girls and Boys' Journal of Adolescent Research, vol. 19, no. 3. pp 323-339.
  • Kiran-Esen, B 2003, 'Examining the adolescents smoking according to their peer pressure levels and gender', Educational Sciences: Theory and Practice, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 179-188.
  • Simons-Morton, B, Haynie, DL, Crump, AD, Eitel, P & Saylor, KE 2001, 'Peer and Parent Influences on Smoking and Drinking Among Early Adolescents', Health and Education Behaviour, vol. 28, no. 1, pp. 95-107.
  • Manohar,U, 2009, Facts about Peer Pressure, Costa Mesa USA, viewed 20th February 2009,

Cite this Cause and Effect Essay:

APA Format

Peer Pressure (2009, May 19) Retrieved August 20, 2017, from

MLA Format

"Peer Pressure" 19 May 2009. Web. 20 August. 2017. <>